Start Date: April 26, 1986
Chernobyl End Date: None in sight
Lives Ruined So Far: Over 9 Million, half of which are children
under the age of five . . . and the victim list keeps growing . .
The Academy award-winning documentary (2004) Chernobyl Heart,
Part 1, 3:26)
by William B. Fox
Publisher, America First Books
President, America First Institute Author
of this web page
First published 25 May 2012
Last updated, reedited 27 July 2012
deserves special study for everyone concerned about the continuing
Fukushima catastrophe. Most
Americans and Europeans are still unaware that prolonged
(or "chronic") low level radiation is extemely dangerous
and destructive to human gene pools -- not to mention all other
forms of life on this planet. It can be even more hazardous
than short bursts of high level radiation. People around the
Northern Hemisphere -- particularly in North America -- have
been bathed in chronic low level radiation ever since the Fukushima
melt-downs that began on March 11th. (Please
see my weekly radiation chart series). Furthermore, this
invisible, tasteless, colorless, and odorless threat has delayed
effects which typically grow worse
over time, to include increasing effects from bio-accumulation
in the food chain.
top of all this, most Americans have been subjected to other
forms of low level radiation from continuous nuclear power plant
emissions, bomb test fallout (much of it still up in the atmosphere),
and global depleted uranium contamination. They have also been
bombarded with unhealthy chemical additives in their food, drinking
water, and vaccines, not to mention dangers that exist in genetically
modified foods (GMO) which are now being slipped into a wide
range of foods without any package label alerts. Many of these
different types of toxins actually multiply each other's
evil effects rather than add to each other. (For example cigarrete
smoke combined with uranium dust creates cancer rates among
uranium miners that is five to ten times greater than the additional
cancer rates caused by cigarrette smoke alone and uranium dust
alone that are added together). Fortunately,
there are many things that you can do to protect yourself, your
family, and others that you care about:
study the works profiled on this web page created by leading
scientists such as Dr. Alexey V. Yablokov and Dr. Chris Busby
who dare to tell the truth about the breadth, depth, and longevity
of the terrible problems created by Chernobyl radiation -- terrible
truths suppressed by mainstream media. Then
please extrapolate the likely consequences to Fukushima, which
Dr. Busby believes could be as much as 300 to a 1,000 times
worse than Chernobyl. As
a "case study," Chernobyl is the best "comparable"
available to help us predict the future -- and it is not pretty.
You need to understand this before you can adequately protect
yourself. In fact, the situation could become
even worse if any of North America's aged and functionally
obsolete reactors get sabotaged or melt down for other reasons.
(The current situation even without a meltdown is very
disturbing. Energy News reports
that three quarters of U.S. nuclear plants have major leaks.
Radiation expert Leuren Moret reports that according to a TVA
report, virtually all nuclear reactors periodically leak as
much as 1,300 fission products -- everything that comes out
of a nuclear bomb blast -- into the environment ). Please see
U.S. nuclear crisis web page for more details.
is a sneak preview of key points regarding the Chernobyl disaster.
The public should already have been made aware of
these points by national media during the more than quarter
century following the 1986 explosion -- but it has been kept
in the dark:
In major areas of Belarus and Ukraine today only about 20%
of the children are healthy. Radiation does more than cause
cancer -- it exacerbates every form of disease and weakness
known to man. Diseases include heart disease, cancer, autism,
and neurological damage. Weaknesses include lowered IQs, muscular
degeneration, and accelerated aging.
Some radiation-induced mutations can persist for over 16 generations,
or until they are selected out of the gene pool by evolutionary
processes. Radiation increases gene pool ("genomic")
instability. Future generations who were never exposed to
radiation become significantly more sensitive to new radiation
based upon the damaged DNA they have inherited.
Radiation-related diseases and abnormalities not only persist
at high rates in human populations for decades, but
often accumulate and get worse over time. The most
dangerous levels of Cesium contamination will not significantly
decline for 300-400 years. Human populations that live in
heavily contaminated areas become so loaded with sick, nonproductive
people that they can hardly sustain themselves, much less
advance civilization, science, and technology. Radiation-related
degradation of a society can easily push it in the direction
of a new Dark Age or drop it down to permanent economic basket
case Third World status.
Bioaccumulation in the food and water supply often becomes
more dangerous over time compared to spikes in fallout that
might take place within a few months of a bomb blast or nuclear
reactor melt-down. All of this is usually vastly more dangerous
than short bursts of external forms of radiation, such as
cosmic radiation and X-rays, because once radioactive particles
are ingested, they wreak vastly more damage as they continuously
irradiate the nearby cells structures they get lodged in.
Chernobyl is still ongong. It is currently leaking and needs
a an extremely expensive new sarcophagus. Once the reactor
wreckage is dismantled and molten fuel is finally extracted,
certain components of the contaminated material will remain
very hazardous for hundreds of thousands, millions, or even
billions of years. This is typical of the long term impact
of "nuclear accidents" that leak nuclear fuel.
web page also covers the strong possibility that Chernobyl was
induced by sabotage. This is a vitally important but
little studied aspect of the Chernobyl accident. Worse yet,
denial and cover-ups were major factors in shaping the public
response to Chernobyl in the twenty five years that followed.
and cover-ups have also been major factors in thwarting appropriate
civil defense measures in the wake of the Fukushima disaster.
Paradoxically, government denial and mainstream media cover-ups
around the world have been even more extreme
in the wake of the 3-11-2011 Fukushima meltdowns than they were
after the 4-26-1986 Chernobyl meltdown and explosion. This may
be interpreted in many different ways. Perhaps nothing was learned
from Chernobyl due to ignorance, laziness, cowardice, and incompetence.
Or perhaps, if one subcribes to various "false flag"
or sabotage-related theories, a malevolent power elite learned
all too well. Once it became clear that they could go unpunished
for Chernobyl, they proceeded to inflict another "Chernobyl"
on the world at Fukushima on a vastly greater scale. To
fully protect oneself, one must be able to grasp the full social
and political reality behind who in the power elite is trying
to keep us in the dark and why..
The most important objective of this web page is to prod readers
to start asking the right questions -- many of which are very
painful for most people. In this regard, I think this public
education project is a success.
they can get you asking the wrong questions,
they don't have to worry about the answers.”
-- Thomas Pynchon, Gravity's
and Long Term Consequences of Chernobyl as a Humanitarian Disaster
Immediate and Long Term Consequences of Chernobyl as a Humanitarian
is widely considered the most scholarly and comprehensive scientific
study in existance to help people understand the full spectrum
of Chernobyl radiation consequences over time. The copyright
is now held by Dr. Alexey V. Yabolokov, who selflessly converted
this work into a free PDF in an effort to help quickly educate
as many people as possible about this extremely urgent and serious
topic. From the inside cover "ON THE COVER: Pine trees
reveal changes in wood color, density, and growth rate following
irradiation from the Chernobyl disaster. T. A. Mousseau, University
of South Carolina (2009)"
Note: This work is like a "Rosetta Stone" for gaining
an introductory overview of the consequences of a major nuclear
melt-down on civilian populations. The extreme degree of damage
caused by radiation is hard for most people to comprehend, therefore
this work, combined with the scholarly works of Dr. Chris Busby
and his colleagues at EURRAD, provides a necessary critical mass
of facts and analysis that many people require to finally overcome
denial and willful ignorance and finally "get it."
this web page I focus upon providing extracts from Chapter I and
II. On my Individual
and Group Radiation Protection and Contamination Avoidence web
page, I provide numerous extracts from Chapter
IV. Radiation Protection after the Chernobyl Catastrophe
of this is meant to just be an appetizer. People should feel inspired
to review the entire work. We also need to achieve the largest
audience possible in this time of terrible crisis.
of the Catastrophe for People
and the Environment
VASSILY B. NESTERENKO
ALEXEY V. NESTERENKO
JANETTE D. SHERMAN-NEVINGER
By Prof. Dr. Biol. DimitroM. Grodzinsky
By Alexey V. Yablokov and Vassily B. Nesterenko
Introduction: The Difficult Truth about Chernobyl
By Alexey V. Nesterenko, Vassily B. Nesterenko, and Alexey V.
Contamination: An Overview
Chernobyl Contamination through Time and Space
By Alexey V. Yablokov and Vassily B. Nesterenko
of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public Health
Chernobyl’s Public Health Consequences: Some
By Alexey V. Yablokov
General Morbidity, Impairment, and Disability after
the Chernobyl Catastrophe
By Alexey V. Yablokov
Accelerated Aging as a Consequence of the Chernobyl
By Alexey V. Yablokov
Nonmalignant Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe
By Alexey V. Yablokov
Oncological Diseases after the Chernobyl Catastrophe
By Alexey V. Yablokov
Mortality after the Chernobyl Catastrophe
By Alexey V. Yablokov
Conclusion to Chapter II
of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for the Environment
Atmospheric, Water, and Soil Contamination after
By Alexey V.Yablokov, Vassily B. Nesterenko, and Alexey V. Nesterenko
Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Flora
By Alexey V. Yablokov
Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Fauna
By Alexey V. Yablokov
Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Microbial
By Alexey V. Yablokov
Conclusion to Chapter III
Protection after the Chernobyl Catastrophe
Chernobyl’s Radioactive Contamination of Food
By Alexey V. Nesterenko, Vassily B. Nesterenko, and Alexey V.
Decorporation of Chernobyl Radionuclides
By Vassily B. Nesterenko and Alexey V. Nesterenko
Protective Measures for Activities in Chernobyl’s
By Alexey V. Nesterenko and Vassily B. Nesterenko
Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe for Public
Health and the
Environment 23 Years Late
By Alexey V. Yablokov, Vassily B. Nesterenko, and Alexey V.
Conclusion to Chapter IV
DR. BIOL. DIMITRO
and comments added by William B. Fox, Ed.]
than 22 years have passed since the Chernobyl catastrophe burst
upon and changed our world. In just a few days, the air, natural
waters, flowers, trees, woods, rivers, and seas turned to potential
sources of danger to people, as radioactive substances emitted
by the destroyed reactor fell upon all life. Throughout the
Northern Hemisphere radioactivity covered most living spaces
and became a source of potential harm for all living things.
just after the failure, public response was very strong and
demonstrated mistrust of atomic engineering. A number of countries
decided to stop the construction of new nuclear power stations.
The enormous expenses required to mitigate the negative consequences
of Chernobyl at once “raised the price” of nuclear-generated
electric power. This response disturbed the governments of many
countries, international organizations, and official bodies
in charge of nuclear technology and led to a paradoxical polarization
as to how to address the issues of those injured by the Chernobyl
catastrophe and the effects of chronic irradiation on the health
of people living in contaminated areas. Owing to the polarization
of the problem, instead of organizing an objective and comprehensive
study of the radiological and radiobiological phenomena induced
by small doses of radiation, anticipating possible negative
consequences, and taking adequate measures, insofar as possible,
to protect the population from possible negative effects, apologists
of nuclear power began a blackout on data concerning the actual
amounts of radioactive emissions, the doses of radiation, and
the increasing morbidity among the people that were affected.
it became impossible to hide the obvious increase in radiation-related
diseases, attempts were made to explain it away as being a result
of nationwide fear. At the same time some concepts of modern
radiobiology were suddenly revised. For example, contrary to
elementary observations about the nature of the primary interactions
of ionizing radiation and the molecular structure of cells,
a campaign began to deny non-threshold radiation effects. On
the basis of the effects of small doses of radiation in some
nonhuman systems where hormesis was noted, some scientists began
to insist that such doses from Chernobyl would actually benefit
humans and all other living things.
apogee of this situation was reached in 2006 on the 20th anniversary
of the Chernobyl meltdown. By that time the health and quality
of life had decreased for millions of people. In April 2006
in Kiev, Ukraine, two international conferences were held in
venues close to one another: one was convened by supporters
of atomic energy and the other by a number of international
organizations alarmed by the true state of health of those affected
by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The decision of the first conference
has not been accepted up to now because the Ukrainian party
disagrees with its extremely optimistic positions. The second
conference unanimously agreed that radioactive contamination
of large areas is accompanied by distinctly negative health
consequences for the populations and predicted increased risk
of radiogenic diseases in European countries in the coming years.
a long time I have thought that the time has come to put an
end to the opposition between technocracy advocates and those
who support objective scientific approaches to estimate the
negative risks for people exposed to the Chernobyl fallout.
The basis for believing that these risks are not minor is very
documents of that time issued by Soviet Union / Ukraine governmental
commissions in regard to the first decade after 1986 contain
data on a number of people who were hospitalized with acute
radiation sickness. The number is greater by two orders of magnitude
than was recently quoted in official documents. How can we understand
this difference in calculating the numbers of individuals who
are ill as a result of irradiation? It is groundless to think
that the doctors’ diagnoses were universally wrong. Many
knew in the first 10-day period after the meltdown that diseases
of the nasopharynx were widespread.We do not know the quantity
or dose of hot particles that settled in the nasopharyngeal
epithelium to cause this syndrome. They were probably higher
than the accepted figures.
estimate doses of the Chernobyl catastrophe over the course
of a year, it is critical to consider the irradiation contributed
by ground and foliage fallout, which contaminated various forms
of food with short-half-life radionuclides. Even in 1987 activity
of some of the radionuclides exceeded the contamination by Cs-137
and Sr-90. Thus decisions to calculate dose only on the scale
of Cs-137 radiation led to obvious underestimation of the actual
accumulated effective doses. Internal radiation doses were defined
on the basis
of the activity in milk and potatoes for different areas. Thus
in the Ukrainian Poles’e region [Ed. Note: This is probably
the same as Ukrainian Polesia],
where mushrooms and other forest products make up a sizable
share of the food consumed, the radioactivity was not considered.
biological efficiency of cytogenic effects varies depending
on whether the radiation is external or internal: internal radiation
causes greater damage, a fact also neglected. Thus, there is
reason to believe that doses of irradiation have not been properly
estimated, especially for the first year after the reactor’s
failure. Data on the growth of morbidity over two decades after
the catastrophe confirm this conclusion. First of all, there
are very concrete data about malignant thyroid disease in children,
so even supporters of “radiophobia” as the principal
cause of disease do not deny it. With the passage of time, oncological
diseases with longer latency periods, in particular, breast
and lung cancers’, became more frequent. From
year to year there has been an increase in nonmalignant diseases,
which has raised the incidence of overall morbidity in children
in areas affected by the catastrophe, and the percent of practically
healthy children has continued to decrease. For example,in Kiev, Ukraine, where before the meltdown, up to 90%
of children were considered healthy, the figure is now 20%.In some Ukrainian Poles’e [Polesia]
territories, there are no healthy children, and morbidity has
essentially increased for all age groups. The frequency of disease
has increased several times since the accident at Chernobyl.
Increased cardiovascular disease with increased frequency of
heart attacks and ischemic disease are evident. Average life
expectancy is accordingly reduced. Diseases of the central nervous
system in both children and adults are cause for concern. The
incidence of eye problems, particularly cataracts, has increased
sharply. Causes for alarm are complications of pregnancy and
the state of health of children born to so-called “liquidators”
(Chernobyl’s cleanup workers) and evacuees from zones
of high radionuclide contamination.
the background of such persuasive data, some defenders of atomic
energy look specious as they deny the obvious negative effects
of radiation upon populations. In fact, their reactions include
almost complete refusal to fund medical and biological studies,
even liquidating government bodies that were in charge of the
“affairs of Chernobyl.” Under pressure from the
nuclear lobby, officials have also diverted scientific personnel
away from studying the problems caused by Chernobyl.
progress in biology and medicine is a source of hope in finding
ways to prevent many diseases caused by exposure to chronic
nuclear radiation, and this research will advance much more
quickly if it is carried out against the background of experience
that Ukrainian, Belarussian, and Russian scientists and physicians
gained after the Chernobyl catastrophe. It would be very wrong
to neglect the opportunities that are open to us today. We must
look toward the day that unbiased objectivity will win out and
lead to unqualified support for efforts to determine the influence
of the Chernobyl catastrophe on the health of people and biodiversity
and shape our approach to future technological progress and
general moral attitudes. We must hope and trust that this will
present volume probably provides the largest and most complete
collection of data concerning the negative consequences of Chernobyl
on the health of people and on the environment. Information
in this volume shows that these consequences do not
decrease, but, in fact, are increasing and will continue to
do so into the future. The main conclusion of the book
is that it is impossible and wrong “to forget Chernobyl.”
Over the next several future generations the health of people
and of nature will continue to be adversely impacted.
DR. BIOL. DIMITRO M. GRODZINSKY Chairman,
Department of General Biology,
Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences,
Chairman, Ukrainian National Commission on Radiation Protection
The Difficult Truth
Alexey V. Nesterenko,a Vassily
B. Nesterenko,a and
Alexey V. Yablokovb aInstitute of Radiation Safety
(BELRAD), Minsk, Belarus bRussian Academy of Sciences,
millions of people on this planet, the explosion of the fourth
reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986
divided life into two parts: before and after.
The Chernobyl catastrophe was the occasion for technological
adventurism and heroism on the part of the “liquidators,”
the personnel who worked at the site attempting to contain the
escaping radiation, and, in our view, for cowardice on the part
of people in public life who were afraid to warn the population
of the unimaginable threat to innocent victims. Chernobyl has
become synonymous with human suffering and has brought new words
into our lives — Chernobyl liquidators, children of Chernobyl,
Chernobyl AIDs, Chernobyl contamination, Chernobyl heart, Chernobyl
dust, and Chernobyl collar (thyroid disease), etc.
the past 23 years it has been clear that there is a danger greater
than nuclear weapons concealed within nuclear power. Emissions
from this one reactor exceeded a hundredfold the radioactive
contamination of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
No citizen of any country can be assured that he or she can
be protected from radioactive contamination. One nuclear reactor
can pollute half the globe. Chernobyl fallout covered the entire
questions persist: How many radionuclides spread over the world?
How much radiation is still stored inside the sarcophagus, the
dome that covers the reactor? No one knows for certain, but
the estimates vary from 50 × 106 Ci, or 4–5% of
the total radionuclides released from the reactor, to the reactor
being essentially empty and more than 10 × 109 Ci dispersed
over the globe (Chapter I.1). It is not known how many liquidators
ultimately took part in the mitigation; a directive from the
USSR Ministry of Defense, dated June 9, 1989, mandated secrecy
April 2005, prior to the 20th anniversary of the catastrophe,
the Third Chernobyl Forum Meeting was held in Vienna. Forum
experts included representatives from the International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee
on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health
Organization (WHO), and other individuals from the United Nations,
the World Bank, and governmental organizations from Belarus,
Russia, and Ukraine. The result was a three-volume report presented
in September 2005 (IAEA, 2005; UNDP, 2002; WHO, 2006; for the
latest short version see IAEA, 2006).
basic conclusion of the report’s medical volume is that
9,000 victims died or developed radiogenic cancers, but given
the background of spontaneous cancers, “it will be difficult
to determine the exact cause of the deaths.” Some 4,000
children were operated on for thyroid cancer. In the contaminated
areas, cataracts were increasingly seen in liquidators and children.
Some believe that poverty, feelings of victimization, and fatalism,
which are widespread among the population of the contaminated
areas, are more dangerous than the radioactive contamination.
Those experts, some of whom were associated with the nuclear
industry, concluded that as a whole, the adverse consequences
for the health of the people were not as significant as previously
opposing position was voiced by Secretary-General Kofi Annan:
is a word we would all like to erase from our memory. But
more than seven million of our fellow human beings do not
have the luxury of forgetting. They are still suffering, everyday,
as a result of what happened . . .The exact number of victims
can never be known. But three million children demanding treatment
until 2016 and earlier represents the number of those who
can be seriously ill . . . their future life will be deformed
by it, as well as their childhood. Many will die prematurely.
fewer than three billion persons inhabit areas contaminated
by Chernobyl’s radionuclides.
than 50% of the surface of 13 European countries and 30% of
eight other countries have been contaminated by Chernobyl fallout
(Chapter I.1). Given biological and statistical laws the adverse
effects in these areas will be apparent for many generations.
after the catastrophe, concerned doctors observed a significant
increase in diseases in the contaminated areas and demanded
help. The experts involved with the nuclear industry and highly
placed tribunals declared that there is no “statistically
authentic” proof of Chernobyl radiation, but in the 10
years immediately following the catastrophe, official documents
recognized that the number of thyroid cancers grew “unexpectedly.”
Prior to 1985 more than 80% of children in the Chernobyl territories
of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia were healthy; today
fewer than 20% are well. In the heavily contaminated areas it
is difficult to find one healthy child (Chapter II.4).
believe it is unreasonable to attribute the increased occurrence
of disease in the contaminated territories to screening or socioeconomic
factors because the only variable is radioactive loading. Among
the terrible consequences of Chernobyl radiation are malignant
neoplasms and brain damage, especially during intrauterine development
are the assessments of experts so different?
are several reasons, including that some experts believe that
any conclusions about radiation-based disease requires a correlation
between an illness and the received dose of radioactivity. We
believe this is an impossibility because no measurements were
taken in the first few days. Initial levels could have been
a thousand times higher than the ones ultimately measured several
weeks and months later. It is also impossible to calculate variable
and “hot spot” deposition of nuclides or to measure
the contribution of all of the isotopes, such as Cs, I, Sr,
Pu, and others, or to measure the kinds and total amount of
radionuclides that a particular individual ingested from food
second reason is that some experts believe the only way to make
conclusions is to calculate the effect of radiation based upon
the total radiation, as was done for those exposed at Hiroshima
and Nagasaki. For the first 4 years after the atomic bombs were
dropped on Japan, research was forbidden. During that time more
than 100,000 of the weakest died.Asimilar pattern emerged after
Chernobyl. However, theUSSR authorities officially forbade doctors
from connecting diseases with radiation and, like the Japanese
experience, all data were classified for the first 3 years (Chapter
independent investigations scientists have compared the health
of individuals in various territories that are identical in
terms of ethnic, social, and economic characteristics and differ
only in the intensity of their exposure to radiation. It is
scientifically valid to compare specific groups over time (a
longitudinal study), and such comparisons have unequivocally
attributed differences in health outcomes to Chernobyl fallout
volume is an attempt to determine and document the true scale
of the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe...
- Dr. Alexey Yablokov - Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe
Caption "Interview with Dr. Alexey Yablokov co-author
of "Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People
and the Environment" recorded March 27, 2011. Dr. Alexey
Yablokov is a prominent Russian scientist, environmentalist,
former member of the USSR parliament, and environmental advisor
to former Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the Gorbachev
administration. Dr. Yablokov has been a leader in efforts to
reveal conservation and pollution challenges in Russia such
as illegal whaling and radiation contamination, particularly
in marine ecosystems and the biology of marine mammals."
Chernobyl Contamination through
Time and Space
Alexey V. Yablokov and
Vassily B. Nesterenko
Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl meltdown
spread over 40% of Europe (including Austria, Finland, Sweden,
Norway, Switzerland, Romania, Great Britain, Germany, Italy,
France, Greece, Iceland, Slovenia) and wide territories in
Asia (including Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Emirates, China),
northern Africa, and North America. Nearly 400 million people
resided in territories that were contaminated with radioactivity
at a level higher than 4 kBq/m2 (0.11 Ci/km2) from April to
July 1986. Nearly 5 million people (including, more than 1
million children) still live with dangerous levels of radioactive
contamination in Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia. Claims
that the Chernobyl radioactive fallout adds “only 2%”
to the global radioactive background overshadows the fact
that many affected territories had previously dangerously
high levels of radiation. Even if the current level is low,
there was high irradiation in the first days and weeks after
the Chernobyl catastrophe. There is no reasonable explanation
for the fact that the International Atomic Energy Agency and
the World Health Organization (Chernobyl Forum, 2005) have
completely neglected the consequences of radioactive contamination
in other countries, which received more than 50% of the Chernobyl
radionuclides, and addressed concerns only in Belarus, Ukraine,
and European Russia.
fully understand the consequences of Chernobyl it is necessary
to appreciate the scale of the disaster. Clouds of radiation
reached heights between 1,500 and 10,000 m and spread around
the globe, leaving deposits of radionuclides and radioactive
debris, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 1.1).
has been some dispute over the years as to the volume of radionuclides
released when reactor number four of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power
Plant (ChNPP) exploded, and it is critical to be aware of the
fact that there continue to be emissions. That release, even
without taking the gaseous radionuclides into account, was many
hundreds of millions of curies, a quantity hundreds of times
larger than the fallout from the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima
after the explosion, and even now, many articles report levels
of radioactivity calculated by the density of the contamination
— Ci/km2 (Bq/m2). While these levels form a basis for
further calculations of collective and individual doses, as
shown below, such an approach is not completely valid as it
does not take into account either the ecological or the physical
aspects of radioactive contamination, nor does it provide exact
calculations of received doses (see Chapter II.2).
Geographical Features of Contamination
after the NPP explosion, attempts began to reconstruct the radioactive
fallout picture to determine radioactive fallout distribution
levels using hydrometeorological data (wind direction, rainfall,
etc.) for each subsequent day and include emissions of fuel
particles, aerosol particles, and radioactive gases from the
destroyed reactor (see, e.g., Izrael, 1990; Borzylov, 1991;
UNSCEAR, 2000; Fairlie and Sumner, 2006). Geographic distribution
of Chernobyl radionuclides around the globe is shown in Figure
1.2. It is clear that most of the gaseous–aerosol radionuclides
settled outside of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia (Figure
1.3, Table 1.1).
to other data (Fairlie and Sumner, 2006, table 3.6, cc. 48 &
49) Europe received from about 68 to 89% of the gaseous–aerosol
radionuclides from the Chernobyl clouds in a distribution that
was extremely nonuniform. From April 26 through May 5, 1986,
the winds around Chernobyl varied by 360 degrees, so the radioactive
emissions from the mix of radionuclides varied from day to day
and covered an enormous territory (Figures 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6).
1.7 is a reconstruction of only one of the Chernobyl clouds
(corresponding to No. 2 on Figure 1.4). It is important to understand
that radionuclide emissions from the burning reactor continued
until the middle of May.
daily emissions formed several radioactive clouds, and each
such cloud had its own radionuclide composition and geography.
We do not have accurate instrumental data for Chernobyl radionuclide
contamination for all of Europe. Calculated data (averaged for
1 km2) were published only for Cs-137 and Pu, while Cs-137 contaminated
all of the European countries, without exception (Table 1.2).
data in Table 1.2 refer only to the distribution of Cs-137,
but there were significant quantities of many other radionuclides
in the form of gases, aerosols, and “hot particles”
(see below) widely dispersed across Europe in the first weeks
and months following the explosion: Cs-134, I-131, Sr-90, Te-132,
and I-132. For example, in May 1986 in Wales and in the Cumbria
area of England rainwater contained up to 345 Bq/liter of I-132
and 150 Bq/liter Cs- 134 (Busby, 1995). The effective doses
in May 1986 for Chernobyl radionuclides in England were: Cs-134
and Cs-137, 27 mSv; I-131, 6 mSv; Sr-90, 0.9 mSv (Smith et al.
the distribution of radioactivity for Cs-134 and Cs-137 corresponds
to their ratio in emissions (i.e., 48 and 85 PBq, or 36 and
64%, respectively), then the proportional distribution of the
main Chernobyl radionuclides in England should be as follows
[Dreicer et al., 1996; Fairlie and Sumner, 2006, Table 3.8(i)]:
the proportional distribution of Chernobyl radionuclides in
England is similar to that of other European countries (i.e.,
70 PBq Cs-137 made up 51% of all the radionuclide fallout),
one can assume that the total amount of radioactive
fallout in Europe is nearly 137 PBq:
years after the Chernobyl catastrophe, many areas in Europe
remain contaminated. For example, in 2006, according to Great
Britain’s Ministry of Health 355 farms in Wales, 11 in
Scotland, and 9 in England, pasturing more than 200,000 sheep,
continue to be dangerously contaminated with Cs-137 (McSmith,
the entire country of Belarus was covered by the Chernobyl cloud.
I-131, I-132, and Te-132 radioisotope fallout covered the entire
country (Figures 1.8 through 1.12). A maximum level of I-131
contamination of 600 Ci/km2 was measured in the Svetlovichi
village in Gomel Province in May 1986.
23% of the area of Belarus (47,000 km2) was contaminated by
Cs-137 at a level higher than 1 Ci/km2 (Nesterenko, 1996; Tsalko,
2005). Until 2004, the density of Cs- 137 contamination exceeded
37 kBq/m2 in 41,100 km2 (Figure 1.10).
levels of Cs-137 contamination were 475 Ci/km2 in the village
of Zales’ye, Braginsk District, and 500 Ci/km2 in the village
of Dovliady and the Narovlja District of Gomel Province. The maximum
radioactive contamination in the soil found in 1993 in the village
of Tchudyany, Mogilev District, was 5,402 kBq/m2 or 145 Ci/km2,
exceeding the precatastrophe level by a factor of 3,500 (Il’yazov,
from Sr-90 has a more local character than that of Cs-137. Some
10% of the area of Belarus has levels of Sr-90 soil contamination
above 5.5 kBq/m2, covering an area of 21,100 km2 (Figure 1.11).
Soil contaminated by Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-240 at levels higher
than 0.37 kBq/m2 was found in 4,000 km2, or nearly 2% of the country
(Konoplya et al., 2006; Figure 1.12). As a whole, more than 18,000
km2 of agricultural land or 22% of Belarus farmland is heavily
contaminated. Of that, an area of 2,640 km2 cannot be used for
agriculture and the 1,300-km2 Polessk state radioactive reserve
near the Chernobyl NPP is forever excluded from any economic activity
owing to contamination by long half-life isotopes.
radionuclides have contaminated more than a quarter of Ukraine,
with Cs-137 levels higher than 1 Ci/km2 in 4.8% of the country
18.104.22.168. European Russia
1992 contamination in European Russia was found in parts of
19 Russian provinces (Table 1.3), so consideration must be given
to serious contamination in the Asian part of Russia as well.
22.214.171.124. Other European Countries
level of Chernobyl’s Cs-137 contamination in each European
country is shown in Table 1.2; some additional comments follow.
The primary Chernobyl radionuclides reached Bulgaria on May
1–10, 1986. There were two peaks of fallout: May 1 and
9 (Pourchet et al., 1998).
Chernobyl fallout clouds over southern Finland reached peak
concentrations between 15:10 and 22:10 hours on April 28, 1986.
Official Service Central de Protection Contre les Radiations
Ionisantes initially denied that the radioactive cloud had passed
over France. This is contrary to the finding that a significant
part of the country, especially the alpine regions, were contaminated
on April 29 and 30, 1986 (see Figure 1.5).
The scale of Chernobyl’s contamination in Germany is reflected
in the fact that several shipments of powdered milk to Africawere
returned toWest Germany because they were dangerously contaminated
with radiation (Brooke, 1988). 5.
Greece reported significant fallout of several Chernobyl radionuclidesincluding:
Ag-110 m, Cs-137, and Sb-125 (Papastefanou et al., 1988a,b; see
Figure 1.16). Noting unusual contamination (see Section 1.4.1
below) is important, but it is also evidence of the inadequacy
of the available data relevant to Chernobyl contamination: where
are comparable data about radioactive Ag-110 m contamination in
other countries? Do data not exist because no one has compiled
it or because this radioactive Ag contaminated only Greece, Italy,
and Scotland (Boccolini et al., 1988; Martin et al., 1988)?
There were several radioactive plumes, but the main Chernobyl
fallout cloud passed over northern Italy on May 5, 1986. Some
97% of the total deposition in Italy occurred between April 30
and May 7 (Spezzano and Giacomelli, 1990). 7.
The main plume passed over Poland around April 30, 1986, with
Te-122 as the primary radionuclide. Numerous “hot particles”
were detected with a prevalence of Ru-103 and Ru-106 (Broda, 1987).
In June 1987, a 1,600-ton shipment of powdered milk from Poland
to Bangladesh showed unacceptably high levels of radioactivity
(Mydans, 1987). 8.
The main radioactive plume passed Scotland between 21:00 and 23:00
hours on May 3, 1986, with the largest concentrations of Te-132,
I-132, and I-131 (Martin et al., 1988). 9.
The peak concentration of Cs-137 in air occurred on April 28,
1986, but 99% of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides were deposited
in Sweden during a single period of rain on May 8, 1986. Patterns
of fallout related to local weather conditions: Cs-137 dominated
on the coast of southern Norrland, I- 131 in the north and south,
and Te-132 in the central Upland area (Kresten and Chyssler, 1989;
Mattson and Vesanen, 1988; Mellander, 1987).
[Ed. Note: Figures 1.10 and 1.11 ommitted]
KINGDOM. Official reports
grossly underestimated the Chernobyl-derived fallout and its
radiological impact on the United Kingdom. Cs-137 deposition
in Cumbria was up to 40 times higher than originally reported
by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (RADNET,
2008; Sanderson and Scott, 1989).
The main radioactive fallout occurred on May 3–5, 1986
(Juznic and Fedina, 1987).
to 10% of all the Chernobyl radionuclides fell on Asia, including,
basically, some tens of PBq of the first,most powerful emissions
on the first days of the catastrophe. Huge areas of Asian Russia
(Siberia, Far East), East and CentralChina (Figure 1.14), and
the Asian part of Turkey were highly contaminated. Chernobyl
fallout was noted in central Asia (Imamniyazova, 2001) and in
Japan (Imanaka, 1999;
Western Georgia was especially heavily contaminated. The average
soil radioactivity due to Cs-137 from 1995 to 2005 was 530 Bq/kg,
and that figure was twice as high in East Georgia. The combined
activity of Cs-137 and Sr-90 reached 1,500 Bq/kg (Chankseliany,
2006; Chankseliany et al., 2006).
JAPAN. Twenty Chernobyl
radionuclides were detected in two plumes in early and late
May 1986, with the highest level in northwestern Japan and a
maximum concentration on May 5. Chernobyl-derived stratospheric
fallout continued until the end of 1988 (Higuchi et al., 1988;
Imanaka and Koide, 1986).
is still a high probability of small but dangerously radioactive
areas in the Caucasus; Trans-Caucasia; lower, central, and middle
Asia (including Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan);China;
and the Persian Gulf area, continuing until the present time.
1.2.3. North America
in North America were contaminated from the first, most powerful
explosion, which lifted a cloud of radionuclides to a height
of more than 10 km. Some 1% of all Chernobyl radionuclides—nearly
several PBq—fell on North America.
There were three waves of Chernobyl airborne radioactivity over
eastern Canada composed of: Be-7, Fe-59, Nb-95, Zr-95, Ru-103,
Ru-106, I-131, La-140, Ce-141, Ce-144, Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65,
Ba-140, and Cs-137. The fallout of May 6 and 14 arrived via
the Arctic, and that of May 25 and 26 via the Pacific (Roy et
al., 1988). By the official “Environmental Radioactivity
in Canada” report for 1986 (RADNET, 2008) Chernobyl Ru-103,
Ru-106, Cs-134, and Cs-137 were consistently measurable until
STATES. The Chernobyl
plumes crossed the Arctic within the lower troposphere and the
Pacific Ocean within the mid-troposphere, respectively. Chernobyl
isotopes of Ru-103, Ru-106, Ba-140, La-140, Zr-95, Mo-95, Ce-141,
Ce-144, Cs-134, Cs- 136, Cs-137, I-132, and Zr-95 were detected
in Alaska, Oregon, Idaho, New Jersey, New York, Florida, Hawaii,
and other states (Table 1.4).
Associated Press release on May 15, 1986, noted “Officials
in Oregon have warned that those who use rainwater for drinking
should use other sources of water for some time”...
[Editor's Note: I am skipping part
of this Chapter, not because it is not important, but because
I am constrained for space and a major purpose of this extract
is to provide enough of a teaser to motivate the reader to study
the pdf original in its entirety. ]
1.4. Ecological Features of Contamination
three most important factors in connection with the Chernobyl
contamination for nature and public health are: spotty / uneven
deposits of contamination, the impact of “hot particles,”
and bioaccumulation of radionuclides (also see Chapter III).
1.4.1. Uneven/Spotty Contamination
now the uneven/spotty distribution of the Chernobyl radioactive
fallout has attracted too little attention. Aerogamma studies,
upon which most maps of contamination are based, give only average
values of radioactivity for 200–400 m of a route, so small,
local, highly radioactive “hot spots” can exist
without being marked. The character of actual contamination
of an area is shown on Figure 1.15. As can be seen, a distance
of 10 m can make a sharp difference in radionuclide concentrations.
“Public health services of the
French department Vosges found out that a hog hit by
one of local hunters ‘was glowing.’ Experts,
armed with supermodern equipment, conveyed a message
even more disturbing: practically the entire mountain
where the dead animal had just run is radioactive at
a level from 12,000 to 24,000 Bq/m2. For comparison,
the European norm is 600 Bq/m2. It was remembered that
radioactive mushrooms were found in these forests last
autumn. The level of Cs-137 in chanterelles, boleros
and stalks of mushrooms exceeded the norm by approximately
forty times . . .” (Chykin, 1997)
is still uncertainty in regard to contamination not only by
Cs-137 and Sr-90, but also by other radionuclides, including
beta and alpha emitters. Detailed mapping of territories for
the varying spectra of radioactive contamination could not be
done owing to the impossibility of fast remote detection of
beta and alpha radionuclides.
Chernobyl hot spots measure tens to hundreds of meters across
and have levels of radioactivity ten times higher than the surrounding
areas. The concentration density of Cs-137 can have several
different values even within the limits of the nutrient area
of a single tree (Krasnov et al., 1997). In Poland, Ru-106 was
the predominant hot spot nuclide in 1986, although a few hot
spots were due to Ba-140 or La-140 (Rich, 1986).
1.16. shows distinct large-scale spotty radioactive distribution
of Sb, Cs, and Ag in areas of continental Greece.
1.4.2. Problem of “Hot Particles”
fundamental complexity in estimating the levels of Chernobyl
radioactive contamination is the problem of so-called “hot
particles” or “Chernobyl dust.”When the reactor
exploded, it expelled not only gases and aerosols (the products
of splitting of U (Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu, etc.), but also particles
of U fuel melted together with other radionuclides — firm
hot particles. Near the Chernobyl NPP, heavy large particles
of U and Pu dropped out. Areas of Hungary, Germany, Finland,
Poland, Bulgaria, and otherEuropean countries sawhot particles
with an average size of about 15 µm. Their activity mostly
was determined to be (UNSCEAR, 2000) Zr-95 (half-life 35.1 days),
La-140 (1.68 days), and Ce-144 (284 days). Some hot particles
included beta-emitting radionuclides such as Ru-103 and Ru-106
(39.3 and 368 days, respectively) and Ba-140 (12.7 days). Particles
with volatile elements that included I-131, Te-132, Cs-137,
and Sb-126 (12.4 days) spread over thousands of kilometers.
“Liquid hot particles” were formed when radionuclides
became concentrated in raindrops:
“Hot particles” were found in new apartment
houses in Kiev that were to be populated in the autumn
of 1986. In April andMay they stood without roofs or
windows, so they absorbed a lot of a radioactive dust,
which we found in concrete plates of walls and ceilings,
in the carpenter’s room, under plastic covers
on a floor, etc. For the most part these houses are
occupied by staff of the Chernobyl atomic power station.
While planning occupancy the special dosimeter commands
I developed (I then was the deputy chief engineer of
Chernobyl NPP on radiation safety and was responsible
for the personnel in areas found to be contaminated)
carried out a radiation check on the apartments. As
a result of thesemeasurements I sent a report to the
Governmental Commission advising of the inadmissibility
of inhabiting these “dirty” apartments.
The sanitation service of the Kiev municipality . .
. answered with a dishonest letter in which it agreed
that there was radioactivity in these apartments, but
explained it away as dirt that was brought in by tenants.”
(Karpan, 2007 by permission)
of individual hot particles reached 10 kBq.When absorbed into
the body (with water, food, or inhaled air), such particles
generate high doses of radiation even if an individual is in
areas of low contamination. Fine particles (smaller than 1 µm)
easily penetrate the lungs, whereas larger ones (20–40
µm) are concentrated primarily in the upper respiratory
system (Khruch et al., 1988; Ivanov et al.,
1990; IAEA, 1994). Studies concerning the peculiarities of the
formation and disintegration of hot particles, their properties,
and their impact on the health of humans and other living organisms
are meager and totally inadequate.
1.5. Changes in the Radionuclide Dose
understand the impact of Chernobyl contamination on public health
and the environment it is necessary to consider the essential
changes in the radionuclide spectrum during of the first days,
weeks, months, and decades after the Chernobyl catastrophe.
The maximum level of activity from Chernobyl’s fallout
in the first days and weeks, which was due mostly to short-lived
radionuclides, exceeded background levels by more than 10,000-fold
(Krishev and Ryazantsev, 2000; and many others). Today radioactive
contamination is only a small part of all the radiation emitted
during the catastrophe. Based on data from Sweden and Finland,
ratios of Cs-137 and other radionuclide fallout in the first
days and weeks allows for reconstruction of the relative value
of the various nuclides that make up the total external dose
[Ed. Note: "Figure 1.16 continued" not provided]
the first days after the explosion the share of total external
radiation due to Cs-137 did not exceed 4%, but the level of radiation
from I-131, I-133, Te-129, Te-132, and several other radionuclides
was hundreds of times higher. Within the succeeding months and
the first year after the explosion the major external radiation
was due to isotopes of Ce-141, Ce- 144, Ru-103, Ru-106, Zr-95,
Ni-95, Cs-136, and Np-239. Since 1987, most external radiation
levels have been defined by Cs-137, Sr-90, and Pu. Today these
radionuclides, which are found mostly in soil, seriously impact
agricultural production (for details see Chapters III.9 and IV.13).
of radiation contamination can be determined by an analysis of
tooth enamel. Such analyses were conducted by experts with the
German group “Physicians of theWorld for the Prevention
of Nuclear War.” They tested the teeth of 6,000 children
and found that children born soon after the Chernobyl catastrophe
had 10 times more Sr-90 in their teeth compared with children
born in 1983 (Ecologist, 2000).
of Americium-241. The powerful alpha radiation emitter
Am-241, formed as a result of the natural disintegration of
Pu-241, is a very important factor in the increasing levels
of contamination in many areas located up to 1,000 km from the
Chernobyl NPP. The territory contaminated by Pu today, where
the level of alpha radiation is usually low, will again become
dangerous as a result of the future disintegration of Pu-241
to Am-241 in the ensuing tens and even hundreds of years (see
also Chapter III.9). An additional danger of Am-241 is its higher
solubility and consequent mobility into ecosystems compared
1.6. Lead Contamination
operations to quench the fires in the fourth reactor of the
Chernobyl NPP, helicopters dumped 2,400 tons of Pb into the
reactor (Samushia et al., 2007; UNSCEAR, 2000); according to
other data, the figure was 6,720 tons (Nesterenko, 1997). During
several subsequent days, a significant part of the Pb was spewed
out into the atmosphere as a result of its fusion, boiling,
and sublimation in the burning reactor. Moreover, Pb poisoning
is dangerous in itself, causing, for example, retardation in
children (Ziegel and Ziegel, 1993; and many others).
Blood Pb levels in both children and adults in Belarus
have noticeably increased over the last years (Rolevich et
al., 1996). In the Brest Province of Belarus, for example,
of 213 children studied, the level of Pb was 0.109 ±
0.007 mg/liter, and about half of these children had levels
of 0.188 ± 0.003 mg/liter (Petrova et al., 1996), whereas
the World Health Organization (WHO) normfor children is no
more than 0.001 mg/liter.
In Ukraine in the Poles’e District of Kiev Province,
levels of Pb in the air breathed by operators of agricultural
machinery was up to 10 times or more, exceeding maximum permissible
concentrations. Increased levels of Pb were apparent in the
soil and atmosphere and in the urine and the hair of adults
and children in Kiev soon after the explosion (Bar’yakhtar,
Pb contamination added to radiation causes harm to living
organisms (Petin and Synsynys, 1998). Ionizing radiation causes
biochemical oxidation of free radicals in cells. Under the
influence of heavy metals (such as Pb) these reactions proceed
especially intensively. Belarussian children contaminated
with both Cs-137 and Pb have an increased frequency of atrophic
gastritis (Gres and Polyakova, 1997).
1.7. Evaluation of Chernobyl’s Population Doses
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and WHO (Chernobyl
Forum, 2005) estimated a collective dose for Belarus, Ukraine,
and European Russia as 55,000 persons/Sv. By other more grounded
estimates (see Fairlie and Sumner, 2006) this collective dose
is 216,000 – 326,000 persons/Sv (or even 514,000 persons/
Sv only for Belarus; National Belarussian Report, 2006). The
worldwide collective dose from the Chernobyl catastrophe is
estimated at 600,000 – 930,000 persons/Sv (Table 1.6).
However, it is now clear that these figures for collective doses
are considerably underestimated.
1.8. How Many People Were
and Will Be Exposed to Chernobyl’s Contamination?
first official forecasts regarding the health impact of the
Chernobyl catastrophe included only several additional cases
of cancer over a period of some 10 years. In 20 years it has
become clear that no fewer than 8 million inhabitants of Belarus,
Ukraine, and Russia have been adversely affected (Table 1.7).
must understand that in areas contaminated above 1Ci/km2 (a
level that undoubtedly has statistical impact on public health)
there are no fewer than 1 million children, and evacuees and
liquidators have had no fewer than 450,000 children. It is possible
to estimate the number of people living in areas subject to
Chernobyl fallout all over the world. Some 40% of Europe has
been exposed to Chernobyl’s Cs-137 at a level 4–40
kBq/m2 (0.11–1.08 Ci/km2; see Table 1.2). Assuming that
about 35% of the European population lives in this territory
(where radionuclides fell on sparsely populated mountain areas)
and counting the total European population at the end of the
1980s, we can calculate that nearly 550 million people are contaminated.
It is possible to consider that about 190 million Europeans
live in noticeably contaminated areas, and nearly 15 million
in the areas where the Cs-137 contamination is higher than 40
kBq/m2 (1.08 Ci/km2).
fallout contaminated about 8% of Asia, 6% of Africa, and 0.6%
of North America, so by similar reasoning it appears that outside
of Europe the total number of individuals living in areas contaminated
by Chernobyl Cs-137 at a level up to 40 kBq/m2 could reach nearly
200 million (Table 1.8).
the calculated figures in Table 1.8 are of limited accuracy.
The true number of people living in 1986 in areas outside of
Europe with noticeable Chernobyl contamination can be no fewer
than 150 million and no more than 230 million. This uncertainty
is caused, on the one hand, by calculations that do not include
several short-lived radionuclides, such as I-131, I-133, Te-132,
and some others, which result in much higher levels of radiation
than that due to Cs-137. These include Cl-36 and Te-99 with
half-lives of nearly 30,000 years and more than 21,000 years,
respectively (Fairlie and Sumner, 2006). The latter isotopes
cause very low levels of radiation, but it will persist for
many millennia. On the other hand, these calculations are based
on a uniform distribution of population, which is not a legitimate
assumption. In total, in 1986 nearly 400 million individuals
(nearly 205 million in Europe and 200 million outside Europe)
were exposed to radioactive contamination at a level of 4 kBq/m2
calculations of populations exposed to Chernobyl radiation have
been based on the total collective dose. According to one such
calculation (Table 1.9) the number of people who were exposed
to additional radiation at a level higher than 2.5 × 10-2
mSv might be more than 4.7 billion and at a level of higher
than 0.4 mSv more than 605 million.
of the Chernobyl radionuclides (up to 57%) fell outside of the
former USSR and caused noticeable radioactive contamination
over a large area of the world — practically the entire
that Chernobyl radioactivity adds only 2% to the natural
radioactive background on the surface of the globe obscures the
facts because this contamination exceeded the natural background
in vast areas, and in 1986 up to 600 million men, women, and children
lived in territories contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides at
dangerous levels of more than 0.1 Ci/km2. Chernobyl
radioactive contamination is both dynamic and long term. The dynamic
is delineated as follows: First is the natural disintegration
of radionuclides so that levels of radioactive contamination in
the first days and weeks after the catastrophe were thousands
of times higher than those recorded 2 to 3 years later. Second
is the active redistribution of radionuclides in ecosystems (for
details see Chapter III). Third is the contamination that will
exist beyond the foreseeable future— not less than 300 years
for Cs-137 and Sr-90, more than 200,000 years for Pu, and several
thousands of years for Am-241. From the perspective of the 23
years that have passed since the Chernobyl catastrophe, it is
clear that tens ofmillions of people, not only in Belarus, Ukraine,
and Russia, butworldwide, will live under measurable chronic radioactive
contamination for many decades. Even if the level of external
irradiation decreases in some areas, very serious contamination
in the first days and weeks after the explosion together with
decades of additional and changing conditions of radioactivity
will have an inevitable negative impact on public health and nature...
A Million Casualties (YouTube)
24 March 2011. Interview with Janette Sherman, M.D., toxicologist
and contributing editor of the book Chernobyl: Consequences
of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment.
II. Consequences of the Chernobyl
Catastrophe for Public Health Alexey
B. Nesterenko,a Vassily B. Nesterenko,a,b
and Alexey V. Yablokov c aInstitute
of Radiation Safety (BELRAD), Minsk, Belarus cRussian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia bDeceased
Key words: Chernobyl; secrecy; irradiation; health statistics
Chernobyl’s Public Health Consequences
Some Methodological Problems
Alexey V. Yablokov
Problems complicating a full assessment of the effects
from Chernobyl included official secrecy and falsification
of medical records by the USSR for the first 3.5 years after
the catastrophe and the lack of reliable medical statistics
in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Official data concerning
the thousands of cleanup workers (Chernobyl liquidators) who
worked to control the emissions are especially difficult to
reconstruct. Using criteria demanded by the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization
(WHO), and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the
Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) resulted in marked underestimates
of the number of fatalities and the extent and degree of sickness
among those exposed to radioactive fallout from Chernobyl.
Data on exposures were absent or grossly inadequate, while
mounting indications of adverse effects became more and more
apparent. Using objective information collected by scientists
in the affected areas — comparisons of morbidity and
mortality in territories characterized by identical physiography,
demography, and economy, which differed only in the levels
and spectra of radioactive contamination — revealed
significant abnormalities associated with irradiation, unrelated
to age or sex (e.g., stable chromosomal aberrations), as well
as other genetic and nongenetic pathologies.
first official forecasts of the catastrophic health consequences
of the Chernobyl meltdown noted only a limited number of additional
cases of cancer over the first decades. Four years later, the
same officials increased the number of foreseeable cancer cases
to several hundred (Il’in et al., 1990), at a time when
there were already 1,000 people suffering from Chernobyl-engendered
thyroid cancer. Twenty years after the catastrophe, the official
position of the Chernobyl Forum (2006) is that about 9,000 related
deaths have occurred and some 200,000 people have illnesses
caused by the catastrophe.
more accurate number estimates nearly 400 million human beings
have been exposed to Chernobyl’s radioactive fallout and,
for many generations, they and their descendants will suffer
the devastating consequences. Globally, adverse effects on public
health will require special studies continuing far into the
future. This review concerns the health of the populations in
the European part of the former USSR (primarily, Ukraine, Belarus,
and European Russia), for which a very large body of scientific
literature has been published of which but little is known in
the Western world.
aim of the present volume is not to present an exhaustive analysis
of all available facts concerning Chernobyl’s disastrous
effects — analyzing all of the known effects of the Chernobyl
catastrophe would fill many full-size monographs — but
rather to elucidate the known scale and spectrum of its consequences.
2.1. Difficulties in Obtaining Objective
Data on the Catastrophe’s Impact
both subjective and objective reasons, it is very difficult
to draw a complete picture of Chernobyl’s influence on
subjective reasons include:
The official secrecy that the USSR imposed on Chernobyl’s
public health data in the first days after themeltdown, which
continued for more than 3 years—until May 23, 1989,
when the ban was lifted. During those 3 years an unknown number
of people died from early leukosis. Secrecy was the norm not
only in the USSR, but in other countries as well, including
France, Great Britain, and even the United States. After the
explosion, France’s official Service Central de Protection
Contre les Radiations Ionisantes (SCPRI) denied that the radioactive
cloud had passed over France (CRIIRAD, 2002) and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture failed to disclose that dangerous
levels of Chernobyl radionuclides had been found in imported
foods in 1987 and 1988. The first public announcement of these
contaminations was not made until 8 years later (RADNET, 2008,
Sect. 6 and Sect. 9, part 4).
The USSR’s official irreversible and intentional
falsification of medical statistics for the first 3.5 years
after the catastrophe.
The lack of authentic medical statistics in the USSR and
after its disintegration in 1991, as well as in Ukraine, Belarus,
and Russia, including health data for hundreds of thousands
of people who left the contaminated territories.
The expressed desire of national and international official
organizations and the nuclear industry to minimize the consequences
of the catastrophe.
The number of persons added to the Chernobyl state
registers continues to grow, even during the most
recent years, which casts doubt on the completeness
and accuracy of documentation. Data about cancer mortality
and morbidity are gathered from many and various sources
and are coded without taking into account standard
international principles . . . public health data
connected to the Chernobyl accident are difficult
to compare to official state of health statistics
. . . (UNSCEAR, 2000,
Item 242, p. 49).
situation of the liquidators is indicative. Their total number
exceeds 800,000 (see Chapter I).Within the first years after
the catastrophe it was officially forbidden to associate the
diseases they were suffering from with radiation, and, accordingly,
their morbidity data were irreversibly forged until 1989.
EXAMPLES OF OFFICIAL REQUIREMENTS THAT FALSIFIED LIQUIDATORS’
1. “. . . For specified persons hospitalized after
exposure to ionizing radiation and having no signs or
symptoms of acute radiation sickness at the time of
release, the diagnosis shall be ‘vegetovascular
dystonia.’” [From a letter from the USSR’s
First DeputyMinister of Public Health O. Shchepin, May
21, 1986, # 02–6/83–6 to Ukrainian Ministry
of Public Health (cit. by V. Boreiko, 1996, pp. 123–124).]
2. “. . . For workers involved in emergency activities
who do not have signs or symptoms of acute radiation
sickness, the diagnosis of vegetovascular dystonia is
identical to no change in their state of health in connection
with radiation (i.e., for all intents and purposes healthy
vis-`a-vis radiation sickness). Thus the diagnosis does
not exclude somatoneurological symptoms, including situational
neurosis . . ..” [From a telegram of the Chief
of the Third Main Administration of the USSR’s
Ministry of Health, E. Shulzhenko, # “02 DSP”-1,
dated January 4, 1987 (cit. by L. Kovalevskaya, 1995,
3. “(1) For remote consequences caused by ionizing
radiation and a cause-and-effect relationship, it is
necessary to consider: leukemia or leukosis 5–10
years after radiation in doses exceeding 50 rad. (2)
The presence of acute somatic illness and activation
of chronic disease in persons who were involved in liquidation
and who do not have ARS (acute radiation sickness –Ed.),
the effect of ionizing radiation should not be included
as a causal relationship. (3) When issuing certificates
of illness for persons involved in work on ChNPP who
did not suffer ARS in point “10” do not
mention participation in liquidation activities or the
total dose of radiation that did not reach a degree
of radiation sickness.” [From an explanatory note
of the Central Military-Medical Commission of the USSR
Ministry of Defense, # 205 dated July 8, 1987, directed
by the Chief of 10thMMC Colonel V. Bakshutov to the
military registration and enlistment offices (cit. by
L. Kovalevskaya, 1995, p. 12).]
from the official Liquidators Registers in Russia, Ukraine,
and Belarus cannot be considered reliable because the status
of “liquidator” conveyed numerous privileges. We
do not know if an individual described as a “liquidator”
was really directly exposed to radiation, and we do not know
the number of individuals who were in the contaminated zone
for only a brief time. At the same time, liquidators who served
at the site and were not included in official registers are
just now coming forward. Among them are the military men who
participated in the Chernobyl operations but lack documentation
concerning their participation (Mityunin, 2005). For example,
among nearly 60,000 investigated military servicemen who participated
in the clean-up operations in the Chernobyl zone, not one (!)
had notice of an excess of the then-existing “normal”
reading of 25 R on his military identity card. At the same time
a survey of 1,100 male Ukrainian military clean-up workers revealed
that 37% of them have clinical and hematological characteristics
of radiation sickness, which means that these men received more
than 25 R exposure (Kharchenko et al., 2001). It is not by chance
that 15 years after the catastrophe up to 30% of Russian liquidators
did not have radiation dose data on their official certificates
(Zubovsky and Smirnova, 2000).
it is admitted that “the full-size personal dosimeter
control of liquidators in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
(ChNPP) zone managed to be adjusted only for some months”
(National Russian Report, 2001, p. 11). It was typical to use
so-called “group dosimetry” and “group assessment.”
Even official medical representatives recognize that a number
of Russian liquidators could have received doses seven times
(!) higher than 25 cGy, the level specified in the Russian state
register (Il’in et al., 1995). Based on official data,
this evidence makes the liquidators’ “official”
dose/sickness correlation obsolete and unreliable.
TWO EXAMPLES OF CONCEALMENT OF TRUE DATA ON THE CATASTROPHE’S
“(4) To classify information on the accident.
. . (8) To classify information on results of medical
treatment. (9) To classify information on the degree
of radioactive effects on the personnel who participated
in the liquidation of the ChNPP accident consequences.”
[From the order by the Chief of Third Main Administration
of the USSR’s Ministry of Health E. Shulzhenko
reinforcing the secrecy surrounding the activities on
liquidation of the consequences of the nuclear accident
in ChNPP, #U-2617-S, June 27, 1986 (cit. by L. Kovalevskaya,
1995, p. 188).]
"(2) The data on patients’ records related
to the accident and accumulated inmedical establishments
should have a ‘limited access’ status. And
data generalized in regional andmunicipal sanitary control
establishments, . . . on radioactive contamination of
objects, environment (including food) that exceeds maximum
permissible concentration is ‘classified’.”
[From Order # 30-S by Minister of Health of Ukraine
A. Romanenko on May 18, 1986, about reinforcing secrecy
(cit. by N. Baranov’ska, 1996, p. 139).]
of the data received via individual biodosimetry methods (by
the number of chromosomal aberrations and by electron paramagnetic
resonance (EPR) dosimetry) has shown that officially documented
doses of radiation can be both over- and underestimated(Elyseeva,
1991; Vinnykov et al., 2002; Maznik et al., 2003; Chumak, 2006;
and others). The Chernobyl literature widely admits that tens
of thousands of the Chernobyl liquidators who worked in 1986–1987,
were irradiated at levels of 110–130 mSv. Some individuals
(and, accordingly, some groups) could have received doses considerably
different than the average. All of the above indicates that
from a strictly methodological point of view, it is impossible
to correlate sickness among liquidators with the formally documented
levels of radiation. Official data of thyroid-dosimetric and
dosimetric certification in Ukraine were revised several times
(Burlak et al., 2006). In addition to the subjective reasons
noted above, there are at least two major objective reasons
for the difficulty in establishing the true scale of the catastrophe’s
impact on public health. The first impediment is determining
the true radioactive impact on individuals and population groups,
owing to the following factors:
Difficulty in reconstructing doses from the radionuclides
released in the first days, weeks, and months after the catastrophe.
Levels of radioisotopes such as I-133, I-135, Te-132, and
a number of other radionuclides having short half-lives were
initially hundreds and thousand of times higher than when
Cs-137 levels were subsequently measured (see Chapter I for
details). Many studies revealed that the rate of unstable
and stable chromosome aberrations is much higher — by
up to one to two orders of magnitude — than would be
expected if the derived exposures were correct (Pflugbeil
and Schmitz-Feuerhake, 2006).
Difficulty in calculating the influence of “hot particles”
for different radionuclides owing to their physical and chemical
Difficulty determining levels of external and internal radiation
for the average person and/or group because “doses”
were not directly measured and calculations were based on
dubious assumptions. These assumptions included an average
consumption of a set of foodstuffs by the “average”
person, and an average level of external irradiation owing
to each of the radionuclides. As an example, all official
calculations of thyroid irradiation in Belarus were based
on about 200,000 measurements done in May–June 1986
on fewer than 130,000 persons, or only about 1.3% of the total
population. All calculations for internal irradiation of millions
of Belarussians were made on the basis of a straw poll of
several thousand people concerning their consumption of milk
and vegetables (Borysevich and Poplyko, 2002).
Objective reconstruction of received doses cannot be done
on the basis of such data.
Difficulty determining the influence of the spotty distribution
of radionuclides (specific for each one; see Chapter I for
details) and, as a result, the high probability that the individual
doses of personal radiation are both higher and lower than
“average” doses for the territory.
Difficulty accounting for all of themultiple radionuclides
in a territory. Sr-90, Pu, and Am can also contaminate an
area counted as contaminated solely by Cs-137. For instance,
in 206 samples of breast milk, from six districts of the Gomel,
Mogilev, and Brest provinces (Belarus), where the official
level of radiation was defined only by Sr-90 contamination,
high levels of Cs-137 were also found (Zubovich et al., 1998).
Difficulty accounting for the movement of radionuclides
from the soil to food chains, levels of contamination for
each animal species and plant cultivar. The same difficulties
exist for different soil types, seasons, and climatic conditions,
as well as for different years (see Chapter III of this volume
Difficulty determining the health of individuals who have
moved away from contaminated areas. Even considering the incomplete
official data for the period 1986–2000 for only Belarus,
nearly 1.5 million citizens (15% of the population) changed
their place of residence. For the period 1990–2000 more
than 675,000 people, or about 7% of the population left Belarus
(National Belarussian Report, 2006).
second objective barrier to determining the true radioactive
impact on individuals and/or population groups is the inadequacy
of information and, in particular, incomplete studies of the
Specificity of the influence of each radionuclide on an
organism, and their effect in combination with other factors
in the environment.
Variability of populations and individuals in regard to
radiosensitivity (Yablokov, 1998; and others).
The impact of the ultralow doses (Petkau, 1980; Graeub,
1992; Burlakova, 1995; ECRR, 2003).
The influences of internally absorbed radiation (Bandazhevsky
et al., 1995; Bandazhevsky, 2000).
above are the factors that expose the scientific fallacy in
the requirements outlined by the International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic
Radiation (UNSCEAR) and similar official national bodies that
are associated with the nuclear industry. They demand a simple
correlation — “a level of radiation and effect”—to
recognize a link to adverse health effects as a consequence
of Chernobyl’s radioactive contamination. It is methodologically
incorrect to combine imprecisely defined ionizing radiation
exposure levels for individuals or groups with the much more
accurately determined impacts on health (increases in morbidity
and mortality) and to demand a “statistically significant
correlation” as conclusive evidence of the deleterious
effects from Chernobyl. More and more cases are coming to light
in which the calculated radiation dose does not correlate with
observable impacts on health that are obviously due to radiation
(IFECA, 1995; Vorob’iev and Shklovsky-Kodry, 1996; Adamovich
et al., 1998; Drozd, 2002; Lyubchenko, 2001; Kornev et al.,
2004; Igumnov et al., 2004; and others). All of these factors
do not prove the absence of radiation effects but do demonstrate
the inaccurate methodology of the official IAEA, WHO, and UNSCEAR
Note: I am skipping section 2.2, not because it isn't important,
but because of space constraints on this web page. Once again,
please refer to the pdf of the entire work.]
2.3. Dismissing the Impact of Chernobyl
Radionuclides Is a Fallacy
ionizing radiation has always been an element of life on Earth.
Indeed, it is one of the main sources of on-going genetic mutations
— the basis for natural selection and all evolutionary
processes. All life on Earth — humans included —
evolved and adapted in the presence of this natural background
have estimated that “the fallout from Chernobyl adds only
about 2% to the global radioactive background.” This “only”
2% mistakenly looks trivial: for many populations in the Northern
Hemisphere the Chernobyl doses could be many times higher compared
with the natural background, whereas for others (mostly in the
Southern Hemisphere) it can be close to zero. Averaging Chernobyl
doses globally is like averaging the temperature of hospital
argument is that there are many places around of the world where
the natural radioactive background is many times greater than
the average Chernobyl fallouts and as humans successfully inhabit
such areas, the Chernobyl radioactive fallout is not so significant.
Let us discuss this argument in detail. Humans have a similar
level of individual variation of radiosensitivity as do voles
and dogs: 10–12% of humans have lower (and about 10–14%
have a higher one) individual radiosensitivity than everyone
else (Yablokov, 1998, 2002). Experiments on mammalian radiosensitivity
carried out on voles showed that it requires strong selection
for about 20 generations to establish a less radiosensitive
population (Il’enko and Krapivko, 1988). If what is true
for the experimental vole populations is also true for humans
in Chernobyl contaminated areas, it means that in 400 years
(20 human generations) the local populations in the Chernobyl-contaminated
areas can be less radiosensitive than they are today. Will individuals
with reduced radio-resistance agree that their progeny will
be the first to be eliminated from populations?
physical analogy can illustrate the importance of even the smallest
additional load of radioactivity: only a few drops of water
added to a glass filled to the brim are needed to initiate a
flow. The same few drops can initiate the same overflow when
it is a barrel that is filled to the brim rather than a glass.
Natural radioactive background may be as small as a glass or
as big as a barrel. Irrespective of its volume, we simply do
not know when only a small amount of additional Chernobyl radiation
will cause an overflow of damage and irreversible change in
the health of humans and in nature.
of the above reasoning makes it clear that we cannot ignore
the Chernobyl irradiation, even if it is “only”
2% of the world’s average background radiation.
2.4. Determining the Impact of the
Chernobyl Catastrophe on Public Health
is clear that various radionuclides caused radiogenic diseases
owing to both internal and external radiation. There are several
ways to determine the influence of such radiation:
Compare morbidity and mortality and such issues as students’
performance in different territories identical in environmental,
social, and economic features, but differing in the level
of radioactive contamination (Almond et al., 2007). This is
the most usual approach in the Chernobyl studies.
Compare the health of the same individuals (or genetically
close relatives — parents, children, brothers, and sisters)
before and after irradiation using health indices that do
not reflect age and sex differences, for example, stable chromosomal
Compare the characteristics, mostly morbidity, for groups
with different levels of incorporated radionuclides. In the
first few years after the catastrophe, for 80–90% of
the population, the dose of internal radiation was mostly
due to Cs-137; thus for those not contaminated with other
radionuclides, comparison of diseases in people with different
levels of absorbed Cs-137 will give objective results of its
influence.As demonstrated by the work of the BELRAD Institute
(Minsk), this method is especially effective for children
born after the catastrophe (see Chapter IV for details).
Document the aggregation of clusters of rare diseases in
space and time and compare them with those in contaminated
territories (e.g., study on the specific leukoses in the Russian
Bryansk Province; Osechinsky et al., 1998).
Document the pathological changes in particular organs and
subsequent diseases and mortality with the levels of incorporated
radionuclides, for instance, in heart tissue in Belarus’
Gomel Province (Bandazhevski, 2000).
is methodologically flawed for some specialists to emphasize
“absence of proof” and insist on “statistically
significant” correlation between population doses and
adverse health effects. Exact calculations of population dose
and dose rate are practically impossible because data were not
accurately collected at the time. If we truly want to understand
and estimate the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe
in a methodologically correct manner, it will be demonstrated
in populations or intra-population group differences varying
by radioactive levels in the contaminated territories where
the territories or subgroups are uniform in other respects.
Caption from the web page Chernobyl
Today "The ongoing damage to the human reproductive
process being caused by Chernobyl's fallout is never admitted.
These boys were born miles outside the fenced-off-land around
the wreaked reactor at Chernobyl a decade after the nuclear
accident. Deformed children will continue to be born in these
poisoned area's until these areas are closed. The map below
gives you some idea of the amount of land that should be fenced-off.
The Medical Records of people living in the unclosed area's
are treated as State Secrets."
3. General Morbidity,
Disability after the Chernobyl Catastrophe
Alexey V. Yablokov
In all cases when comparing the
territories heavily contaminated by Chernobyl’s radionuclides
with less contaminated areas that are characterized by a similar
economy, demography, and environment, there is a marked increase
in general morbidity in the former. Increased numbers of sick
and weak newborns were found in the heavily contaminated territories
in Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia.
is no threshold for ionizing radiation’s impact on health.
The explosion of the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl Nuclear
Power Plant (NPP) dispersed an enormous amount of radionuclides
(see Chapter I for details). Even the smallest excess of radiation
over that of natural background will statistically (stochastically)
affect the health of exposed individuals or their descendants,
sooner or later. Changes in general morbidity were among the
first stochastic effects of the Chernobyl irradiation.
In all cases when territories heavily contaminated by Chernobyl
radionuclides are compared with less contaminated areas that
are similar in ethnography, economy, demography, and environment,
there is increased morbidity in the more contaminated territories,
increased numbers of weak newborns, and increased impairment
and disability. The data on morbidity included in this chapter
are only a few examples from many similar studies.
The general morbidity of children noticeably increased in the
heavily contaminated territories. This includes deaths from
common as well as rare illnesses (Nesterenko et al., 1993).
According to data from the Belarussian Ministry of Public Health,
just before the catastrophe (in 1985), 90% of children were
considered “practically healthy.” By 2000 fewer
than 20% were considered so, and in the most contaminated Gomel
Province, fewer than 10% of children were well (Nesterenko,
From 1986 to 1994 the overall death rate for newborns was 9.5%.
The largest increase (up to 205%), found in the most contaminated
Gomel Province (Dzykovich et al., 1996), was due primarily to
disease among the growing number of premature infants.
The number of children with impaired physical development increased
in the heavily contaminated territories (Sharapov, 2001).
5. Children from areas with contamination levels of 15–40
Ci/km2 who were newborn to 4 years old at the time of the catastrophe
have significantly more illnesses than those from places with
contamination levels of 5– 15 Ci/km2 (Kul’kova et
In 1993, only 9.5% of children (0 to 4 years old at the time
of the catastrophe) were healthy in areas within the Kormyansk
and Chechersk districts of Gomel Province, where soil Cs-137
levels were higher than 5 Ci/km2. Some 37% of the children there
suffer from chronic diseases. The annual increase in disease
(per 1,000, for 16 classes of illnesses) in the heavily contaminated
areas reached 102–130 cases, which was considerably higher
than for less contaminated territories (Gutkovsky et al., 1995;
Blet’ko et al., 1995).
In the 8 years after the catastrophe, in the heavily contaminated
Luninetsk District, Brest Province, illnesses per 1,000 children
increased 3.5 times — 1986 – 1988: 166.6; 1989 –
1991: 337.3; 1992 – 1994: 610.7 (Voronetsky, 1995).
For children of the Stolinsk District, Brest Province, who were
radiated in utero from ambient Cs-137 levels up to 15 Ci/km2,
morbidity was significantly higher for the primary classes of
illnesses 10 years later. Disease diagnoses were manifest at ages
6 to 7 years (Sychik and Stozharov, 1999).
The rates of both premature neonates and small-for-gestational-age
babies in Belarus as a whole were considerably higher in the more
radioactive contaminated territories for 10 years following the
catastrophe (Tsimlyakova and Lavrent’eva, 1996). 10.
Newborns whose mothers had been evacuated from a zone of the strict
control (=15 Ci/km2) had a statistically significant longer body,
but a smaller head and a smaller thorax circumference (Akulich
and Gerasymovich, 1993). 11.
In the Vetca, Narovly, and Hoyniky districts of Gomel Province
and the Kalinkovich District of Mogilev Province, spontaneous
abortions and miscarriages and the numbers of low-birth-weight
newborns were significantly higher in the heavily contaminated
territories (Izhevsky and Meshkov, 1998). 12.
Table 3.1 shows the results of two groups of children from the
heavily and less contaminated territories surveyed for the years
from 1995 to 2001. The state of their health was obtained by subjective
(self-estimation) and objective (based on clinical observations)
studies. Each child was followed for 3 years, and individual contamination
determined by measuring the level of incorporated radionuclides
(using an individual radioactivity counter) and the levels of
Pb and other heavy metals. Data from Table 3.1 show that within
groups the level of radioactive contamination did not change statistically
over 3 years, whereas heavy metals levels were slightly reduced,
with the exception of the Pb level, which increased in controls.
Table 3.2 shows the results of children’s self-estimation
of health. It is clear that children living in the heavily contaminated
areas complain more often of various illnesses. The number of
complaints in the group living in heavily contaminated areas was
noticeably greater than in less contaminated places. Although
the number of complaints increased in both the heavily contaminated
and the less contaminated groups after 3 years of observation,
most of the parameters were higher among the heavily contaminated.
Data in Table 3.3 show that children living in heavily contaminated
areas differed noticeably from those in less contaminated places
for practically all diseases in both the first and the second
survey. The findings in both Table 3.2 and Table 3.3 give a convincing
picture of sharply worsening health for children in the heavily
contaminated areas. The authors of this research defined this
condition as “ecological dis-adaptation syndrome”
which may be another definitive Chernobyl effect (Gres’
and Arinchin, 2001). 14.
According to official statistics in 1993– 1994 primary morbidity
was significantly higher in territories with Cs-137 levels above
15 Ci/km2 (Kozhunov et al., 1996).
Primary invalidism in contaminated territories of Belarus noticeably
increased after 1993, especially during 1997 and 1998 (Figure
The number of invalids was noticeably higher in the more contaminated
Gomel and Mogilev provinces than in the country as a whole. In
the Gomel Province the relative number of invalids was higher,
but in Mogilev Province there were more sick children (Kozhunov
et al., 1996).
According to official data (Medical Consequences, 2003) morbidity
of Belarus liquidators 1986–1987 was significantly higher
than for a similarly aged group. The annual disease rate among
this group of liquidators was up to eight times higher than
for the adult population of Belarus as a whole (Antypova et
For the first 10 years after the catastrophe, general morbidity
in Ukrainian children increased six-fold (TASS, 1998) followed
by a slight reduction, but 15 years after the catastrophe it
was 2.9 times higher than in 1986 (Table 3.4).
In 1988, there was no indication of significant differences
in general morbidity among children living in heavily contaminated
versus less contaminated areas, but comparison of the same groups
in 1995 showed that morbidity was significantly higher in the
3.4. Primary and General Morbidity of Children (0 to 14
Years) in the Heavily Contaminated Territories of Ukraine,
per 1,000 (Grodzinsky, 1999; Moskalenko, 2003; Horishna,
n / a
inated areas (Baida and Zhirnosecova, 1998; Law of Ukraine,
Children radiated in utero had lower birth weight and more diseases
during the first year of life as well as irregularities in their
physical development (Stepanova and Davydenko, 1995; Zakrevsky
et al., 1993; Zapesochny et al., 1995; Ushakov et al., 1997;
From 1997 to 2005 the number of the “practically healthy”
children in heavily contaminated areas decreased more than sixfold—
from 3.2 to 0.5% (Horishna, 2005).
There was appreciably retarded growth in children from 5 to
12 years of age at the time of the survey in the heavily contaminated
territories (Arabskaya, 2001).
In 1999 there were fourfold more sick children in contaminated
territories than the average of such children in Ukraine (Prysyazhnyuk
et al., 2002).
At the beginning of 2005 the percentage of invalid children
in contaminated territories was more than fourfold that of the
average among children in other populations (Omelyanets, 2006).
Among 252 children in contaminated territories officially recognized
as invalids in 2004, 160 had congenital malformations and 47
were cancer victims (Law of Ukraine, 2006).
From 1987 to 1989, it was typical for children from heavily
contaminated territories to suffer from functional disturbances
of various organ systems, indicative of hormonal and immune
imbalance. By 1996 those functional disturbances had become
chronic pathological processes with long-term relapses that
were relatively resistant to treatment (Stepanova et al., 1998).
In spite of the intensive social and medical programs in place
from 1986 to 2003, the number (percentage) of “practically
healthy” children in affected territories decreased 3.7
times (from 27.5 to 7.2%), and the number (percentage) of “chronically
ill” children increased from 8.4% in 1986–1987 to
77.8% in 2003 (Figure 3.2). The percent of children with chronic
diseases increased steadily—from8.4% in 1986–1987
to 77.8% in 2004 (Stepanova, 2006a). At the same time in less
contaminated areas the percentage of healthy children has been
constant during the last 20 years—up to 30% (Burlak et
In Ukraine in the 15 to 18 years after the catastrophe there
has been a steady increase in the numbers of invalid children:
3.1 (per 1,000) in 2000, 4.0 in 2002, 4.5 in 2003, and 4.57
in 2004 (Stepanova, 2006a; Figure 3.3).
The level of general morbidity among evacuee children increased
1.4 times from1987 to 1992 (from 1,224 to 1,665 per 1,000). The
prevalence of diseases for this period rose more than double (1,425
up to 3,046). General morbidity increased 1.5 to 2.4 times in
the contaminated territories from the period before the catastrophe
until 1992. At the same time, across the whole of Ukraine child
morbidity showed a Figure 3.3. Number of invalids (per 1,000)
among children in Ukraine from 1987 to 2003 (Stepanova, 2006a).
marked increase (Lukyanova et al., 1995). This trend is continuing:
455.4 per 1,000 in 1987; 866.5 in 1990; 1,160.9 in 1995; 1,367.2
in 2000; and 1,422.9 in 2004 (Stepanova, 2006b).
After the catastrophe the number (percentage) of “practically
healthy” children in contaminated territories declined markedly
and the number of sick children significantly increased (Table
According to annual surveys during the period from 1988 to 2005
there were severalfold fewer children of liquidators considered
“practically healthy” than were found in the control
group (2.6–9.2% compared with 18.6– 24.6%); furthermore
these liquidators’ children were statistically significantly
taller and more overweight (Kondrashova et al., 2006). 15.
Children in contaminated territories were undersized and had low
body weight (Kondrashova et al., 2006). 16.
In the years from 1988 to 2002, among adult evacuees the number
of “healthy” fell from 68 to 22% and the number “chronically
ill” rose from 32 to 77% (National Ukrainian Report, 2006).
Morbidity among adults and teenagers in the heavily contaminated
territories increased fourfold: from137.2 per 1,000 in 1987 to
573.2 in 2004 (Horishna, 2005). 18.
In 1991 the prevailing primary physical disabilities in the contaminated
territories were due to circulatory problems (39.0%) and diseases
of the nervous system (32.3%). Since 2001 the primary disability
is neoplasm (53.3% in 2005). For the period 1992 to 2005 disability
due to neoplasm increased nearly fourfold. The current second
set of primary disabilities in the contaminated territories is
due to circulatory disease (32.5% in 2005; Table 3.6). 19.
According to official Ukrainian data, at the beginning of 2005
there were 148,199 people whose invalidism resulted from the Chernobyl
catastrophe; among them were 3,326 children (Ipatov et al., 2006).
From 1988 to 1997 increased morbidity related to radiation levels
was more apparent in the heavily contaminated territories: up
to4.2 times in a zone with more than 15 Ci/km2, up to 2.3 times
in a zone with 5–15 Ci/km2, and up to 1.4 times in a zone
with 1–5 Ci/km2 (Prysyazhnyuk et al., 2002).
During the period from 1988 to 2004 the number of liquidators
who were healthy decreased 12.8 times: from 67.6 to 5.3%, and
the number with chronic illnesses increased 6.2 times: from 12.8
to 81.4% (National Ukrainian Report, 2006; Law of the Ukraine,
Among adult evacuees the occurrence of nonmalignant diseases increased
4.8 times (from 632 to 3,037 per 10,000) from 1988 to 2002. Beginning
in 1991–1992 the occurrence and prevalence of these diseases
was above the average for the country (Figure 3.4). 23.
From 1988 to 2002 physical disabilities among adult evacuees increased
42-fold (from 4.6 to 193 per 1,000; National Ukrainian Report,
From 1988 to 2003 disabilities among liquidators increased 76-fold
(from 2.7 to 206 per 1,000; Buzunov et al., 2006). 25.
From 1988 to 1999 primary morbidity among the populations in the
contaminated territories doubled (from 621 to 1,276 and from 310
to 746 per 1,000). Beginning in 1993 these parameters have continually
exceeded the Ukrainian norms (Prysyazhnyuk et al., 2002; TABLE
3.6. Primary Diseases (%) Resulting in Invalidism Connected with
the Chernobyl Catastrophe, 1992 to 2005 (Ipatov et al., 2006)
Illness 1992 2001 2005 Neoplasms 8.3 43.0 53.3 Nervous system
diseases 40.9 4.5 4.5 Circulatory diseases 30.6 41.0 32.5 National
Ukrainian Report, 2006) and are still increasing (Tables 3.7 and
In the heavily contaminated districts of Chernygov Province, the
general morbidity significantly exceeded that in areas with less
contamination; the general morbidity for the entire province was
significantly higher 10 years after the catastrophe as compared
with 10 years before (Donets, 2005). 27.
The general morbidity of Ukrainian liquidators increased 3.5 times
in the 10 years following the catastrophe (Serdyuk and Bobyleva,
Typical complaints in the contaminated territories in the first
year after the catastrophe included rapidly developing fatigue
(59.6%), headache (65.5%), blood pressure instability (37.8%),
abnormal dreaming (37.6%), and aching joints (30.2%) (Buzunov
et al., 1995).
Since 1987 the number of liquidators in the category of “ill”
has consistently increased: 18, 27, 34, 42, 57, 64, 75, to 81%
(Grodzinsky, 1999). In the 18 years after the catastrophe the
number of “sick” liquidators exceeded 94%. In 2003,
some 99.9% of the liquidators were officially “sick”
in Kiev; 96.5% in Sumy Province were sick and 96% in Donetsk
Province (LIGA, 2004; Lubensky, 2004).
For the period from 1988 to 1994 there was a manifold increase
in primary disabilities (invalidism) among liquidators and evacuees,
which exceeded the Ukrainian norms (Table 3.9).
Disability among liquidators began to increase sharply from
1991 and by the year 2003 had risen tenfold (Figure 3.5).
The total measure of the “health of the population”
(the sum of invalidism and morbidity)
in the Russian part of the European Chernobyl territories worsened
up to threefold during the 10 years after the catastrophe (Tsyb,
Children from radioactive contaminated provinces became ill much
more often than children in “clean” regions. The greatest
differences in morbidity are expressed in the class of illness
labeled “symptoms, phenomena, and inexact designated conditions”
(Kulakov et al., 1997). 3.
From 1995–1998 the annual prevalence of all registered diseases
of children in the southwest districts of Bryansk Province (Cs-137
> 5 Ci/km2), was 1.5–3.3 times the provincial level as
well as the level across Russia (Fetysov, 1999; Kuiyshev et al.,
2001). In 2004 childhood morbidity in these districts was double
the average for the province (Sergeeva et al., 2005). 4.
Childhood morbidity in the contaminated districts of Kaluga Province
15 years after the catastrophe was noticeably higher (Ignatov
et al., 2001).
Initially diagnosed childhood illnesses measured in 5-year periods
for the years from 1981 to 2000 show an increase in the first
two decades after the catastrophe (Table 3.10).
The frequency of spontaneous abortions and miscarriages and the
number of newborns with low birth weight were higher in the more
contaminated Klintsy and Novozybkov districts of Bryansk Province
(Izhevsky and Meshkov, 1998). 7.
The number of low-birth-weight children in the contaminated territories
was more than 43%; and the risk of birth of a sick child in this
area was more than twofold compared with a control group: 66.4
± 4.3% vs. 31.8 ± 2.8% (Lyaginskaya et al., 2002).
Children’s disability in all of Bryansk Province in 1998–1999
was twice that of three of the most contaminated districts: 352
vs. 174 per 1,000 (average for Russia, 161; Komogortseva, 2006).
The general morbidity of adults in 1995– 1998 in the districts
with Cs-137 contamination
of more than 5 Ci/km2 was noticeably higher than in Bryansk Province
as a whole (Fetysov, 1999; Kukishev et al., 2001).
The general morbidity of the Russian liquidators (3,882 surveyed)
who were “under the age of 30” at the time of the
catastrophe increased threefold over the next 15 years; in the
group “31–40 years of age” the highest morbidity
occurred 8 to 9 years after the catastrophe (Karamullin et al.,
morbidity of liquidators exceeds that of the rest of the Russian
population (Byryukov et al., 2001). 12.
In Bryansk Province there was a tendency toward increased general
morbidity in liquidators
from 1995 to 1998 (from 1,506 to 2,140 per 1,000; Fetysov, 1999).
All the Russian liquidators, mostly young men, were initially
healthy. Within 5 years after the catastrophe 30% of them were
officially recognized as “sick”; 10 years after fewer
than 9% of them were considered “healthy,” and after
16 years, only up to 2% were “healthy” (Table 3.11).
The total morbidity owing to all classes of illnesses for the
Russian liquidators in 1993–1996 was about 1.5 times above
that for corresponding groups in the population (Kudryashov, 2001;
Ivanov et al., 2004). 15.
The number of diseases diagnosed in each liquidator has increased:
up until 1991 each liquidator had an average of 2.8 diseases;
in 1995, 3.5 diseases; and in 1999, 5.0 diseases (Lyubchenko and
Agal’tsov, 2001; Lyubchenko, 2001). 16.
Invalidism among liquidators was apparent 2 years after the catastrophe
and increased torrentially (Table 3.12).
In 1995 the level of disability among liquidators was triple
that of corresponding groups (Russian Security Council, 2002),
and in 1998 was four times higher (Romamenkova, 1998). Some
15 years after the catastrophe, 27% of the Russian liquidators
became invalids at an average age of 48 to 49 (National Russian
Report, 2001). By the year 2004 up to 64.7% of all the liquidators
of working age were disabled (Zubovsky and Tararukhina, 2007).
3.4. Other Countries
FINLAND. There was an increase in the number of premature births
just after the catastrophe (Harjulehto et al., 1989).
GREAT BRITAIN. In Wales, one of the regions most heavily contaminated
by Chernobyl fallout, abnormally low birth weights (less than
1,500 g) were noted in 1986–1987 (Figure 3.6). Figure
3.6. Percent of newborns with birth weight less than 1,500 g
from 1983 to 1992 (top curve) and a level of Sr-90 in soil (bottom
curve) in Wales (Busby, 1995).
HUNGARY. Among infants born in May– June 1986 there was
a significantly higher number of low-birth-weight newborns (Wals
and Dolk, 1990).
LITHUANIA. Among liquidators (of whom 1,808 survived) morbidity
was noticeably higher among those who were 45 to 54 years of
age during their time in Chernobyl (Burokaite, 2002).
SWEDEN. The number of newborns with low birth weight was significantly
higher in July 1986 (Ericson and Kallen, 1994).
is clear that there is significantly increased general morbidity
in territories heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout
and higher rates of disability among liquidators and others
who were exposed to higher doses of radiation than the general
population or corresponding non-radiated groups. Certainly,
there is no direct proof of the influence of the Chernobyl catastrophe
on these figures, but the question is: What else can account
for the increased illness and disability that coincide precisely
in time and with increased levels of radioactive contamination,
if not Chernobyl?
IAEA and WHO suggested (Chernobyl Forum, 2006) that the increased
morbidity is partly due to social, economic, and psychological
factors. Socioeconomic factors cannot be the reason because
the compared groups are identical in social and economic position,
natural surroundings, age composition, etc. and differ only
in their exposure to Chernobyl contamination. Following scientific
canons such as Occam’s Razor, Mills’s canons, and
Bradford Hill criteria, we cannot discern any reason for this
level of illness other than the radioactive contamination due
to the Chernobyl catastrophe.
. . Another landmark work worth special attention.
20 Years On
Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident
European Committee on Radiation Risk
Documents of the ECRR 2006 No1
Is it Safe to Live in Territories Contaminated
Radioactivity? Consequences of the Chernobyl
Accident 20 Years Later
By E. B. Burlakova and A. G. Nazarov
Mental, Psychological and Central Nervous
of the Chernobyl Accident Exposures
By Konstantin N. Loganovsky
The Influence of the Chernobyl Accident on
By Eugene Yu. Krysanov
Chromosome Aberrations in the Blood Lymphocytes
People Exposed as a Result of the Chernobyl
By G. P. Snigiryova and V. A. Shevchenko
Teratogenic Effects After Chernobyl
By Inge Schmitz-Feuerhake
Reflections of the Chernobyl Catastrophe on
World: Special and General Biological Aspects
By D. M. Grodzinsky
Infant Leukaemia in Europe After Chernobyl
Significance for Radioprotection; a Meta-Analysis
of Three Countries Including New Data from the UK.
By Chris Busby
The Health of the Chernobyl Liquidators- a
Alexey .V. Yablokov
Did Acute Radiation Syndrome Occur Among the
of the 30 km Zone?
By Tetsuji Imanaka
Combined Spatial-temporal Analysis of Malformation
in Bavaria After the Chernobyl Accident
By Helmut Küchenhoff, Astrid Engelhardt, Alfred Körblein
Radioecological Effects in Belarus 20 Years
Chernobyl Catastrophe: The Need for Long-term
Radiation Protection of the Population
By V. B. Nesterenko and A. V. Nesterenko
Studies of Pregnancy Outcome Following the
By Alfred Koerblein
The Death Toll of the Chernobyl Accident
By Rosalie Bertell
by Dr. Chris Busby
is now the 20th anniversary of the accident and in the West
nothing has changed. It as if none of these events ever occurred.
Children continue to die of cancer near nuclear polluted sites,
which still continue to release fission-product radioisotopes
under licenses based on the IRCP model. Court cases are still
lost by the enraged and desperate parents because judges still
believe that the doses to the children were too low. Scientists
on government committees still talk about ‘absorbed dose’
as if it were a meaningful concept for internal irradiation.
The Emperor still wears his new clothes.
evidence from the Chernobyl affected territories, presented
here in these chapters, reveals the real-world consequences
of a simple and terrible new discovery: that the effects of
low dose internal irradiation cause subtle changes in the genome
that result in an increase in the general mutation rate. This
genomic instability was first seen in cells in the laboratory.
The Chernobyl evidence, presented here, shows that this seems
to be true for all species, for plants and animals and humans.
It has profound implications that go beyond radiation protection
and risk models. In the review paper by Krysanov in this collection
we find that mice living in the high irradiation zone, 22 generations
after the initial exposure, are more radiosensitive than mice
living in lower exposure areas. The same effect is reported
for plants by Grodzhinsky who wryly points out that plants cannot
exhibit the ‘radiophobia’ that many of the Chernobyl
effects have been blamed on. This flies in the face of current
ideas about genetic selection.
effects of genomic instability are apparent in the evidence
of massive harm to the organs and systems of living creatures
at low doses of internal exposure, resulting in a kind of radiation
ageing associated with random mutations in all cells. At the
higher doses in the ‘liquidators’, after some years,
their bodies seem to simply fall apart. In an astonishing statement
we hear from Yablokov that in Moscow 100% of the liquidators
are sick, in Leningrad 85%. These are men that ran like hares
into the radiation fields with improvised lead waistcoats cut
from roofs and who, by stabilising the situation at the reactor,
saved Europe from a nuclear explosion equivalent to 50 Hiroshima
Bombs - an outcome that would have made most of it uninhabitable.
They are forgotten.
biological systems collapse; at the cell level, at the tissue
level and at the population level. Burlakova and Nazarov describe
these subtle effects at lower doses of internal irradiation
in laboratory cell systems and also people, Grodzhinsky shows
the effects in plants, - higher for internal exposures than
external, Krysanov shows the effects in wild animals and Yablokov
and the Nesterenkos in the children and adults living and continuing
to live in the contaminated territories. The effects clearly
operate at what are presently thought to be vanishingly low
doses. The increases in infant leukaemia in several countries
in Europe flag up the extreme dissonance between the IRCP model
and the true effects. This finding has been ignored by the WHO.
The papers are not referenced in UNSCEAR or in the recent US
BEIR VII report. The comparison between the expected and observed
cases of infant leukaemia gives a clear indication of an error
of upwards of 150-fold in the current model’s prediction.
This is shocking. It means that the previous releases to the
environment from accidents, from weapons tests or under licence
have killed and will still kill millions. The effects of the
1960s atmospheric weapons tests are with us and our children
forever and are clearly responsible for many of the current
is a scandal that UN agencies charged with protecting the public
- e.g. the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects
of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) or the World Health Organisation
(WHO) - can ignore the huge amount of evidence from the Chernobyl
accident that shows these effects. This evidence has been presented
to them again and again. Yet in the WHO conference on Chernobyl
in Kiev in 2001 the representative of UNSCEAR, Norman Gentner
stated clearly: The
risk of leukaemia doesn’t appear to be elevated even among
the recovery workers. No scientific evidence for increases in
cancer incidence or other nonmalignant disorders that could
be related to the accident. Science
moves forward through experiment and through observation. The
radiation risk model presently used to underpin legal constraints
on public exposure is based mainly on the theory that the external
acute radiation effects in the Japanese A-Bomb survivors can
be used to predict and explain effects from exposure to internal
novel fission-products that never existed on earth for the whole
of evolution. The Chernobyl accident and its appalling outcomes
have given the human race the empirical evidence to test this
theory. The observations made or reviewed in these extraordinary
chapters - many written by eminent scientists makes it fundamentally
clear that the present radiation risk model is flawed.
ECRR sub-committee on Chernobyl has worked hard under difficult
conditions to assemble the contributions from these eminent
scientists and to put them into reasonable English. This book
represents a landmark on the road to understanding the effects
of low-dose chronic irradiation. The committee believe that
these lessons should be borne in mind by policy makers who are,
even now, discussing new investments in nuclear energy and ways
in which historic and future radionuclide waste can be disposed
of into the environment. The committee recommends this book
to scientists and policymakers and concerned members of the
public in the hope that the huge amount of work carried out
by scientists publishing their results in Russian language journals
and others studying the effects of the Chernobyl accident will
influence their decisions in this important area of public health...
The Chernobyl Catastrophe - 20 Years
After (a meta-review)
Alexey V. Yablokov Russian Academy of Sciences, and Center for Russian Ecological
first official forecasts regarding the consequences of the explosion
of the reactor in the 4th block of the Chernobyl NPP on April
26th, 1986 concerning the health of the population of the USSR
predicted only several additional cases of cancer over some
tens of years. In 20 years it has become clear that not tens,
hundreds or thousands, but millions of people in the Northern
hemisphere have suffered and will suffer from the Chernobyl
catastrophe. These people include (Grodzinsky, 1999 et al):
More than 220,000 residents of highly contaminated areas
who were evacuated in 1987 across Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
Those who received significant doses of irradiation during
the first days and
weeks, and/or living in territories with radioactive pollution
more than 1 Ci/km2
(in Ukraine - up to 3,2 millions, in Russia - up to 2,4 million,
in Belarus - up to
2,6 million persons, in Sweden, Norway, Bulgaria. Romania,
Germany and a number of other countries across Europe - 0,5
- 0,8 million
Liquidators (the persons who took part in operations to
consequences of the catastrophe both at the NPP and in the
nearby): 740 thousand persons from Ukraine, Russia and Belarus,
and 80 - 90
thousand from Moldova, the Baltic’s states, the Caucasus,
Middle and Central
Children, whose parents belong to the first three groups:
Up to 2,006 approx. 1 - 2 million.
People living in territories where the Chernobyl fallout
fell, basically, in the
Northern hemisphere (including Europe, North America, Asia):
difficult to define, but not less than 2,500 million persons;
People who have consumed the Chernobyl fallouts’
foodstuffs (basically, in the countries of the former USSR,
but also in Sweden,
Norway, Scotland and a number of other European countries)
– possibly in the
order of several hundred thousands.
the first of these four groups exposed to the consequence of
the Chernobyl disaster additional irradiation is (or can be)
substantially determined, for the fifth and sixth groups - stochastic.
secrecy (until May 23rd, 1989) and irreversible state falsification
medical data during first three years after the catastrophe,
as well as an absence of authentic medical statistics in the
former USSR, highlights the inadequacy of material concerning
primary epidemiological consequences of this catastrophe. There
is also uncertainty in determining the quantity of radionuclides
discharged from the reactor: from 50 million Ci (Soviet official
data) up to 3,500 millions Ci (several independent estimations).
are some principal difficulties in establishing a direct connection
between levels of irradiation and health effects. These difficulties
extremely localized concentrations of fallout
difficulty establishing the dose of radiation exposure caused
radionuclides during the first hours, days and weeks after
catastrophe (I-133, I-
135, Te-132 and a number of others); the behaviour of "hot
too complex a picture of the radionuclides’ transformations,
migration and bioconcentrations in ecosystems;
little known specific effect of each radionuclide (e.g.
pollution by Sr-90 has
consequences for the immune system, pollution by Cs-137 -
others under identical
density of radiation, Evetz et al., 1993);
different biological effects of internal and external irradiation
irradiation leads to a gradual auto-immune reaction, whereas
leads to a fast one. Lisianyi, Lubich, 2001).
problems listed above make it difficult to reconstruct individual
doses and dose rates, and cast doubt on any reports of a “strong
correlation” between levels of the Chernobyl irradiation
and specific health effects.
difficulties in understanding the real consequences of the Chernobyl
radioactive fallout include numerous, scientifically unproven
statements made by
representatives of the nuclear industry, and experts connected
with it, about the
insignificance of the catastrophe for public health (e.g., “Chernobyl
order to reveal the full consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe
it is essential to discover its true influence on public health
by comparing the same groups during the same periods after the
catastrophe and comparing populations in territories, identical
in geographical, social and economic conditions and differing
only by the level of irradiation.
1986, in the USSR, life expectancy has noticeably decreased.
On average, infant mortality has noticeably increased, as well
as death rates for those of advanced ages. There is no proof
of a direct connection between these parameters and the Chernobyl
catastrophe, but there is proof of such connections for particular
1986, in the radioactively polluted areas of Ukraine, Belarus
there is an increase in general mortality by comparison with
neighboring areas (Grodzinsky, 1999; Omelianetz, et al., 2001;
Kashirina, 2005; Sergeeva et al., 2005).
increase in the number of stillbirths, correlating with the
level of pollution, is
noted for of some areas of Ukraine (Kulakov et al., 1993) and
Belarus (Golovko, Izhevsky, 1996). The number of spontaneous
abortions (miscarriages) has noticeably increased in some polluted
territories of Russia. By some estimates, the number of miscarriages
and stillbirths as a result of radioactive pollution in Ukraine
has reached 50,000 (Lipik, 2004).
some European countries an increase in perinatal mortality connected
Chernobyl catastrophe has been revealed (see Korblein paper
in this book). After 1987 an increase in infant and children's
mortality is noted in the polluted areas of Ukraine (Omelianetz,
Klement’eva, 2001) and Russia (Utka et al., 2005). Presented
in Table 1 is one example of such mortality in one Russian area.
Table 1 Infant (per 1,000 live births) and
general mortality (per 1,000) in three
radioactively polluted administrative districts of Bryansk area,
Russia in 1995 - 1998 (the Condition …, 1999; Komogortseva,
mortality for 1986 - 1998 has increased by 18 - 22 % in radioactively
polluted Ukrainian territories and among the evacuees, (compared
with the whole of Ukraine - 12 %) (Omelianetz et al., 2001;
Golubchikov et al., 2002). Mortality in men from prostate cancer
has increased in the Ukrainian polluted territories by 1,5 -
2,2 times (in Ukraine as a whole - by 1,3 times) (Omelianetz
et al., 2001). It has been revealed that in the radioactively
polluted territories of Belarus the majority of sudden deaths
correlated with the level of radionuclide incorporation (Bandajevsky,
facts that establish a general increase in the level of child
and infant mortality in the radioactively polluted territories
(and to a greater degree on the more polluted territories) when
compared with similar data in uncontaminated territories, leave
no doubt that absence of these data for the whole area of the
Chernobyl fallout region has
hitherto been associated with incorrect statistical data.
showed a 40 % increase in cancer between 1990 and 2000. Thus,
in the territories most radioactively polluted (the Gomel area)
the increase was maximal, and in the least polluted (the Brest
and Mogyliov areas) - minimal (Okeanov et al., 2004). In 1987
- 1999 in Belarus about 26,000 radiogenic cancers (including
leucosis) were noted; from these cases 11,000 have died (Mal’kov,
2001). Average value of excess absolute cancer risk was 434/104
person/years/Sv (relative risk - 3 - 13 x 10-1), which is above
the limit accepted by UNSCEAR (Mal’kov, 2001).
2 presents calculations of cancer rates based on a collective
dose of all
generations for the entire period of additional Chernobyl Cs-137
the general number of people in different countries who will
from the Chernobyl Cs-137 during their lifetime (about 951,000
persons, see Table 2), it is
necessary to add the number of cancer cases as a result of irradiation
by I-133, I-135
(mostly thyroid cancers) and more than 25 other short-lived
nuclides, including strontium,
plutonium and americium, uranium and hot particles.
Table 2 Calculated number of cancer cases
(without leukaemia) for all generations *,
caused by Chernobyl Cs-137 (Goffmann, 1994)
other estimates of the number of fatal cancer cases induced
by the Chernobyl irradiation claim "only" 22,000 –
28,000 deaths, J. Goffmann (1994) convincingly reveals a clear
understatement on behalf of the authors, or the unreasonable
understating of the collective dose, based on underestimates
of emissions from the blown up reactor. Table 3 presents some
examples of the research that has shown connections between
occurrence of some cancers and the Chernobyl pollution.
the Chernobyl catastrophe cancer of the thyroid gland in children
teenagers in territories in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia rarely
occurred. In Belarus only 21
cases were registered between 1965-1985 (Demedchik et al., 1994),
in Ukraine, before the
catastrophe, no more than 5 cases were registered annually,
in nearby Russia - 100. In the
year 2000 the number of cases of this cancer in children and
teenagers in the polluted
territories had increased by hundreds of times. 4,400 cases
of radiation-induced thyroid
cancer have been recorded in Belarus (Malko, 2002) and about
12,000 cases of thyroid
cancer are considered to have already appeared in the affected
three countries (Imanaka,
2002). This differs from the UNSCEAR 2000 estimation of about
1,800 thyroid cancers
observed during 1990 - 1998 in children 0 - 17 years old in
1986, and differs from the
Chernobyl Forum Report’s (2005) estimation of about 4,000
Belarus the relative risk of radio-induced thyroid cancer (ERR)
more than the risk factor of 8x 10-2 Gy-1 from ICRP-60 (Malko,
on the dynamics of radiogenic thyroid cancer growth and the
the pollution, it is possible to assume that during the following
40 - 50 years in Ukraine
there will be about 30,000 additional cancer cases, in Belarus
– 50,000, and in Russia –
15,000. There are also reports of a rise in cases of thyroid
cancer in the South of France,
Scotland and Poland.
the latent period for leucosis is between several months to
many cases in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have never been registered;
this is also due to
official orders to falsify such data. In spite of this, there
is a visible increase in the
frequency of leukemia in all polluted areas of Ukraine, Belarus
and Russia (Prysyazhnyuk
et al., 1999; Ivanov et al., 1996; Sources and Effects …,
Table 3 Examples of occurrence of some solid
cancers cases as a direct result of the
[America First Books Editor's Note: I am skipping major important
portions of this article which contain numerous graphs to save
space on this web page. Please refer to them in the free PDF
download of this work. For the remainder of this extract, I
am providing some text extracts from middle and last paragraphs
of this article.]
typical consequence of infringement on the immune system in
the radioactively polluted territories appears as an immuno-deficiency
and, due to an increase in frequency and intensity of any acute
and chronic diseases, is observed everywhere in the Chernobyl
polluted territories. Sometimes the weakening of the immune
system in these radioactively polluted territories is referred
to as «Chernobyl AIDS».
9. Premature Ageing
is accelerated ageing among the people in the Ukrainian radioactively
polluted territories: their biological age exceeds their calendar
one by 7 - 9 years (Mezhzherin, 1996). In territories polluted
above 15 Ci/km2 on 137Cs in Belarus the mean age of men and
women who died from heart attacks was 8 years younger than the
average across Belarus (Antypova, Babichveskaya, 2001).
array of diseases commonly considered exclusive to the elderly
is typical for children in all of the heavily polluted territories.
The immune system activity of these children is similar to the
type of immune system activity experienced in old age. (Mezhzherin,
1996). The pathology of the digestive system epithelium in children
from the polluted areas of Belarus also shows similarities with
elderly people (Nesterenko, in litt.). Among 69 children and
teenagers hospitalized in Belarus in 1991 - 1996 with alopecia,
more than 70 % were from polluted territories (Morozevich et
10. Growing mutation rate
are many studies showing a wide range of chromosomal aberrations
in the Chernobyl radioactively polluted areas. A cytogenetic
examination of inhabitants in the 30-km Zone shows that the
frequency of aberrant cells and chromosomal aberrations for
inhabitants in the Zone are significantly higher than those
for the residents in the Kiev region, while the values of the
latter group were found to be above the spontaneous and pre-Chernobyl
levels (Table 13, Table 14)...
[Ed. Note: I now skip to the last portion of
have reviewed above only a small part of the existing data on
public health after the Chernobyl catastrophe. Examining data
concerning the consequences for public health following the
Chernobyl catastrophe does not give cause for optimism: mortality
and morbidity in the polluted territories will continue to grow.
This conclusion is based (among other arguments) on:
A growing contribution to the collective dose in territories
with a small density of
Increasing (instead of decreasing) radioactive impact (dose
and dose rate) due to
increasing internal irradiation;
The end of the latent period for several cancer diseases;
Intensification of many non-cancer illnesses as a result
of damage to the immune
system and deepening of genetic instability.
year it has become clearer that the real consequences of this
catastrophe are much
more widespread and severe than has been predicted by the nuclear
industry’s adepts. In
spite of this we, far from understanding the complete picture
of the consequences of the
Chernobyl catastrophe, are justified in saying that this catastrophe
really is on a global scale
and will continue to be so for many hundreds of years.
better estimate is needed of the real health consequences of
the catastrophe to
mitigate these consequences as best we can. But, at minimum,
the following is urgently
An intensification and a broadening (instead of a reduction
– as has happened over
recent years in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus) of medical, ecological
A strengthening and enrichment of the system of medical
clinics and hospitals all
over the polluted territories;
An assessment for each irradiated person of his/her real
individual dose and, from
this base, create a lifespan plan of medical support for each
Policy makers have to look the truth in eyes. Instead of
the pro-Nuclear slogan
“It’s time to forget Chernobyl” another
one is needed: “It’s time to find ways to
live with Chernobyl- forever”.
dramatic illustration of the horrendous impact of low level
radiation. Fig 1 from "Radiation
exposure and heart attacks in children of Fukushima"
(PDF), dated 9 Sept 2011, based upon Chernobyl research.
Caption: "Number of children without ECG modifications
as a function of Cs-137 concentration in the organism (Bandashevsky
and Bandashevsky)." As noted in the 19 Sept 2011 video
Chris Busby - help save children of Fukushima from radiation
(9:58) above, when the level of ingested Cesium 137 gets up
to the range of 12-26 Becquerels of radiation per kilogram of
the child's weight, only 38% of children still have relatively
healthy hearts. The remaining 62% have damaged hearts. In addition
to causing cancer, ingested radiation can wreak considerable
damage to heart function and also to the performance of most
other organs throughout the body.
Fig 3 "Structure
of the causes of death in Belarus, 2008." In addition to
causing a much higher incidence of cardiac problems, radiation
also causes premature aging.
Fig 4 "Demographic
index for the Republic of Belarus, 1950-2004 [Bandashevsky 2011]."
A premonition for what is in store for Japan, parts of North
America, and even Europe that have been particularly hard hit
with fallout and other forms of contamination?
in April 2011, this perspective factors in the looming threat
of Fukushima. Download the PDF here.
25 years after the reactor catastrophe
[Editor's Note: Please download the full version in PDF
German Affiliate of International Physicians
for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW)
Authors: Dr. rer. nat. Sebastian Pflugbeil, Society for Radiation
Henrik Paulitz, IPPNW
Dr. med. Angelika Claussen, IPPNW
Prof. Dr. Inge Schmitz-Feuerhake, Society for Radiation Protection
With the support of Strahlentelex information service
[America First Books Editor's Note: I have
corrected numerous typos that appear in the PDF version of
the Table of Contents below]
Note on the unreliability of official data published
by WHO and IAEA
What IPPNW and the Society for Radiation Protection
are calling for
Excursus: Key data from the Chernobyl Catastrophe
Premature aging process as a result of radiation exposure
Cancer and leukaemia
Damage to the nervous system
Heart and circulatory diseases
Children of liquidators
The Chernobyl region
Excursus: Miscarriages and pregnancy terminations
Genetic and teratogenic damage (malformations)
The Chernobyl region
Excursus: Chernobyl effects on animals in Europe
Thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases
The Chernobyl region
All cancers and leukaemia
The Chernobyl region
Other illnesses following Chernobyl
Excursus: Consequences of a super-GAU in Germany
“The atomic industry could take a catastrophe
like Chernobyl every year.”
Hans Blix, 1986 in his capacity
as director of the IAEA
paper evaluates studies that contain plausible indications of
health damage caused by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The authors
of this paper attach importance to the selection of methodically
accurate and comprehensible analyses. Due to the already mentioned
methodical difficulties, it is not our aim to present the “right”
statistics in contrast to the obviously wrong ones given by
the IAEA, since these can never be found. They can only supply
us with indications as to the diversity and extent of the health
effects we should be dealing with when we talk about the health
effects of Chernobyl.
Populations which were particularly exposed
to radiation by the Chernobyl catastrophe
from the 30 km zone and other highly contaminated zones:
population of the heavily irradiated zones in Russia, Belarus
population in zones with minor exposure to radiation:
Disease/health damage is to be expected
as a result of additional exposure to radiation because of Chernobyl
Cancer. Nevertheless, it should be noted that
the latency period for many types of
cancer is 25 – 30 years. At present we are only
just seeing cases of thyroid cancers,
breast cancers and brain tumours In the population. But
liquidators have also
developed cancer in numerous other organs: the prostate
gland, stomach, cancer of
the blood, thyroid cancer
Genetic changes: malformations, stillbirths, the lack
Non-cancerous diseases. Many organ systems could be affected;
The effects of low–level radiation (0 – 500
mSv) were systematically monitored and investigated. In
particular, the genetic effects were unclear prior to Chernobyl.
This research has been augmented by research on cells, as
well as on the molecular structures inside the cells. Despite
this, the ICRP continues to give a dose limit of 100 mSv
for teratogenic damage. This claim has been invalidated
by numerous studies.
Non-targeted effects, such as genomic instability and
the bystander effect have been found, i.e. change in the
genomes of cells not directly affected by radiation.
The lower the radiation level, the longer the latency
period before the outbreak of cancer (established as early
as 2000 by Pierce and Preston in the context of the RERF
The genomic instability is passed on in the genes and
increases exponentially with each generation. Numerous research
findings showing chromosome aberrations in the children
of liquidators and mothers who were not exposed to radiation
are available in the research centres of all three affected
republics (Moscow, Minsk, Kiev). First signs of the cumulation
effect could be cases of thyroid cancer among the children
of irradiated parents. However, this is not yet certain.
It was found that the incidence of non-cancerous disease
had increased; mainly cardiovascular and stomach diseases,
and cases of neurological-psychiatric illness were found
to be a somatic effect of low-level radiation. The latter
was observed mainly during research on liquidators and their
According to figures given by the Russian authorities,
more than 90% of the liquidators have become invalids; i.e.
at least 740,000 severely ill liquidators. They are aging
prematurely, and a higher than average number have developed
various forms of cancer, leukaemia, somatic and neurological
psychiatric illnesses. A very large number have cataracts.
Due to long latency periods, a significant increase in cancers
is to be expected in the coming years.
Independent studies estimate that 112,000 to 125,000
liquidators will have died by 2005.
Available studies estimated the number of fatalities
amongst infants as a result of Chernobyl to be about 5000.
Genetic and teratogenic damage (malformations) have also
risen significantly not only in the three directly affected
countries but also in many European countries. In Bavaria
alone, between 1000 and 3000 additional birth deformities
have been found since Chernobyl. We fear that in Europe
more than 10,000 severe abnormalities could have been radiation
induced. The estimated figure of unreported cases is high,
given that even the IAEA came to the conclusion that there
were between 100,000 and 200,000 abortions in Western Europe
because of the Chernobyl catastrophe.
According to UNSCEAR between 12,000 and 83,000 children
were born with congenital deformations in the region of
Chernobyl, and around 30,000 to 207,000 genetically damaged
children worldwide. Only 10% of the overall expected damage
can be seen in the first generation.
In the aftermath of Chernobyl not only was there an increase
in the incidence of stillbirths and malformations in Europe,
but there was also a shift in the ratio of male and female
embryos. Significantly fewer girls were born after 1986.
paper by Kristina Voigt, Hagen Scherb also showed that after
1968, in the aftermath of Chernobyl, around 800,000 fewer
children were born in Europe than one might have expected.
Scherb estimated that, as the paper did not cover all countries,
the overall number of “missing” children after
Chernobyl could be about one million. Similar effects were
also observed following above-ground nuclear weapons tests.
In Belarus alone, over 12,000 people have developed thyroid
cancer since the catastrophe (Pavel Bespalchuk, 2007). According
to a WHO prognosis, in the Belarus region of Gomel alone,
more than 50,000 children will develop thyroid cancer during
their lives. If one adds together all age groups then about
100,000 cases of thyroid cancer have to be reckoned with
in the Gomel region.
On the basis of observed cases of thyroid cancer in Belarus
and Ukraine, Malko (2007) calculated the number of future
cases that might be expected, and then added the radiation
factor. He arrived at the figure of 92,627 cases of thyroid
cancer between 1986 and 2056. This calculation does not
include cases of thyroid cancer among liquidators.
After Chernobyl, infant mortality rates in Sweden, Finland
and Norway increased by a significant 15.8 percent compared
to the trend for the period 1976 to 2006. Alfred Körblein
calculated that for the period 1987 to 1992 an additional
1,209 (95 % confidence interval: 875 to 1,556) infants had
In Germany, scientists found a significant increase in
trisomy 21 in newly-born children in the nine months following
Chernobyl. This trend was especially marked in West Berlin
and South Germany.
Orlov and Shaversky reported on a series of 188 brain
tumours amongst children under three in Ukraine. Before
Chernobyl (1981 to 1985) 9 cases were counted, not even
two a year. In the period 1986-2002 the number rose to 179
children diagnosed with brain tumours – more than
ten per year.
In the more contaminated areas of South Germany a significant
cluster of a very rare type of tumour was found in children,
A paper published by the Chernobyl Ministry in Ukraine
registered a multiplication of the cases of disease of the
endocrine system (25-fold from 1987 to 1992), the nervous
system (6-fold), the circulatory system (44-fold), the digestive
organs (60-fold), the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue
(50 times higher), the muscular-skeletal system and psychological
dysfunctions (53-fold). The number of healthy people among
evacuees sank from 1987 to 1996 from 59 % to 18%. Among
the population of the contaminated areas from 52% to 21%
and –particularly dramatic - among the children who
were not directly affected themselves by Chernobyl fallout
but their parents were exposed to high levels of radiation,
the numbers of healthy children sank from 81% to 30% in
It has been reported for several years that type I diabetes
(insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) has risen sharply
amongst children and adolescents.
Non-cancerous diseases greatly outnumber the more spectacular
cases of leukaemia and cancer.
until today, there has unfortunately been no conclusive overview
of the changes in the health condition of the whole of the affected
population in the region of Chernobyl, not to mention the lack
of an overview of the catastrophe for the people in the Northern
hemisphere. The numbers referred to here may seem on the one
hand to be terribly high, on the other hand rather low. But
it has to be taken into account that nearly all of the collated
studies dealt with relatively small sections of the population.
Even supposedly slight changes in rates of sickness can signify
serious health damage and a large extent of human suffering
when they are extrapolated onto a larger population group.
though the lack of large-scale independent long-term studies
does not permit a complete picture to be made of the current
situation, a number of trends can be shown: a high mortality
rate and an almost 100 % morbidity rate can be observed among
people, such as liquidators, who were exposed to high radiation
levels. 25 years after the reactor catastrophe cancer and other
diseases have emerged on a scale that, owing to the long latency
period, might have appeared inconceivable immediately following
number of non-cancerous diseases is far more dramatic than had
ever before been imagined. “New” symptoms, such
as the premature aging of liquidators, raise questions that
research is still unable to answer.
2050 thousands more cases of illnesses will be diagnosed that
will have been caused by the Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe.
The delay between cause and noticeable physical reaction is
insidious. Chernobyl is far from over.
tragic is the fate of the thousands of children who were born
dead or died in infancy, who were born with malformations and
hereditary diseases, or who are forced to live with diseases
they would not have developed under normal circumstances.
genetic defects caused by Chernobyl will continue to trouble
the world for a long time to come – most of the effects
will not become apparent until the second or third generation.
if the extent of the health effects is not yet clear, it can
still be predicted that the suffering brought about by the nuclear
disaster in Fukushima is, and will be, of a similar magnitude.
“Keep the public confused
on nuclear fission and fusion.”
US-Präsident [sic] Eisenhower
Chernobyl catastrophe changed the world. Millions of people
were made victims overnight. Huge stretches of land were made
uninhabitable. The radioactive cloud spread all over the world.
An understanding of the dangers of the use of nuclear energy
grew in countless numbers of minds. Although in Western Europe
we cannot forget how we were forced to think about what we ate
and the sand our children played in, it was not until 1989 and
“The Children of Chernobyl“ that a vague awareness
of the far greater problems faced by Ukraine, Belarus and Russia
began to grow. That solidarity and a willingness to help the
victims of a catastrophe have now lasted for over 16 years,
is a historically unique phenomenon.
paper evaluates scientific studies that contain plausible indications
of causal relationships between radiation following the Chernobyl
catastrophe and greatly differing diseases and fatalities.
authors of this paper attach importance to methodically accurate
and comprehensible analyses. We have tried not to lose sight
of the immense uncertainty inherent in every estimation in this
field. We have taken published papers into consideration, but
believe a general rejection of papers that have not been published
in peer-reviewed journals is unjustified – Galileo Galilei
and Albert Einstein would have had no chance of having their
papers accepted by a peer-reviewed journal.
loss of the Chernobyl nuclear power station meant first and
foremost a huge direct economic loss. Radiation from Chernobyl
fallout rendered large areas of land agriculturally unusable.
Large and small businesses were given up, towns and villages
abandoned, some were flattened by bulldozers. Millions of people
were affected by radiation and lost all they had; apartments,
houses, homes and social security. Many lost their jobs and
were unable to find new ones, families split up because they
could not tolerate being irradiated or ostracized because of
their proximity to Chernobyl.
quarrel about the number of victims of Chernobyl is as stupid
as it is cynical. It is a well-known fact that the frequently
quoted death toll of 31 is long past being valid. Even the number
of ‘less than 50’ quoted in Vienna in September
2005 cannot possibly be true. It is an unacceptable sophistry
only to recognize those who died of acute radiation disease,
cancer or leukaemia as Chernobyl deaths. Following Chernobyl
there was an obvious if not drastic increase of illness rates,
but - typically - experts judging from a distance, without ever
having treated any of the victims, do not generally accept these
rates as having resulted from Chernobyl.
refuse to haggle over whether a liquidator (clean-up worker)
who received a high radiation dose, who has been an invalid
for years, whose wife has left him, whose daughter is unable
to find a boyfriend because of her father’s history, who
suffers from diverse illnesses, the treatment of which has been
given up by doctors, and who commits suicide, counts as a Chernobyl
death or not.
this way, the search for reliable data on the dead of Chernobyl
has become an impossible task - in any case there are many,
far too many. There is no comprehensive picture of the consequences
of Chernobyl, not yet. The following overview aims at reminding
you of all you already knew, aims at getting you to study carefully
and critically the simplified and minimised accounts given by
the large organizations and to be attentive to their large uncertainties
and blank spaces.
analysis of the effects of Chernobyl is impeded by a large number
of very varying levels of facts:
the first years after the catastrophe the Ministry of Health
in the USSR and the KGB issued a large number of prohibitions
that resulted in vital information necessary to assess the situation
being either withheld, kept secret or falsified. As a result
of this, irreplaceable knowledge and information has been lost
and cannot today be replaced by theoretical calculations, no
matter how complicated they may be.
accounts of the catastrophe were mainly dominated by structures
operating at the ‘red table’-level in Moscow, far
away from Chernobyl. These accounts determine and falsify parts
of the discussion up to the present day.
scientists from both East and West in the fields of radio medicine/radiation
protection and reactor safety/nuclear technology were quick
with appeasements. They were later not, or only partially, prepared
to correct their earlier assessments in spite of the pressure
of compelling facts.
authorities responsible were overstretched by having to investigate
into exposure to radiation suffered by liquidators and the population.
Suitable equipment, specialists and time were not available.
Uncertainties were amplified by deliberate falsification of
documents. The effects on health were different than had been
was considerable migration from the heavily to the less contaminated
areas that is difficult to reconstruct today. Comparisons between
contaminated and uncontaminated areas thus become questionable.
are numerous accounts of attempts at ‘compensatory justice’:
contaminated food was distributed in clean areas and clean food
was transported to contaminated areas, or clean and contaminated
food was mixed – further shrouding the differences between
clean and contaminated areas, and no longer retraceable, but
certainly having a considerable effect upon the health of the
of the governments in Russia, Belarus or Ukraine are interested
in a comprehensive survey of the consequences of Chernobyl.
They prefer to close the case, gradually re-cultivate and resettle
lost territory and pay as little as possible to the victims.
They are not interested in discussions about the mistakes that
have been made. There is a tendency amongst the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Nations Scientific
Committee for the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) to support
this position. Independent scientific studies in this area are
not being financed and are being obstructed or prevented.
radiation damage is difficult to prove. Large epidemiological
studies are expensive and reference to necessary data requires
access that is only possible with state assistance.
patterns in the three mainly affected countries have changed
drastically: a drop in birth rates, increases in death rates
and reduction of male life expectancy by about 10 years. This
is not an easy aspect to take into account when comparing cancer
and disease statistics.
Soviet system collapsed about the same time as Chernobyl. The
entire health system deteriorated as a result. Medication supplies,
hospital equipment and the entire social and economic structure
collapsed. There are a very few very rich people and an increasing
number of desperately poor people who can only feed themselves
by growing their own food – regardless of whether the
earth is contaminated or not. All this has a negative effect
on the state of health. Definitively attributing specific health
damage either to the change in the system or to Chernobyl is
difficult, if not impossible.
great many doctors are overworked and frustrated by their poorly
functioning and badly equipped health service, under these conditions
they have little energy or interest for scientific questions.
They feel that experts on Western committees only perceive the
Chernobyl region as an experimental laboratory, leaving the
doctors alone to treat the patients. These doctors are accordingly
hesitant about giving information to Western scientists.
authorities responsible in European countries only carry out
investigations into the consequences of Chernobyl reluctantly
or not at all – they presume that nothing would come of
them, in view of comparatively small amounts of Chernobyl radiation
fallout. Were something to come of them, the entire academic
world would be turned upside-down. History tells us that such
scientific paradigm changes are often met with bitter resistance
from those in office.
considerable obstacle in the search for something approaching
the real story of Chernobyl is the language barrier. There are
a lot of serious analyses from scientists in Russia, Ukraine
und Belarus, which have been published in Russian and discussed
at congresses in Russian. They are almost completely ignored
In the Western world because, in the West, Russian is not a
commonly-understood language and good translations cannot be
this overview we have compiled scientific studies, which clearly
show that the radioactive gases and particles (isotopes) released
from the destroyed reactor in Chernobyl gave, and still give,
rise to numerous serious illnesses, causing many people to become
sick and die. The papers evaluated here comply with scientific
standards and most have been published in scientific journals.
overview is unavoidably incomplete and inconclusive, we can
only touch on the various issues – the overview would
otherwise have become far too long and unreadable.
hope that in this way we are able to reactivate that which is
already known, impart new knowledge and persuade others to carry
on working independently and reflect upon how to help the victims
of the catastrophe
Key data from the Chernobyl Catastrophe (1)
135,000 were evacuated,
400,000 lost their homes and had to move away
3,000,000 people live in an area with > 185,000 Bq/m2 (5
people live in an area with > 555,000 Bq/m2 (15 Ci/km2)
and 40% of the forests
Russia (of the European part)
21,000 km2 were contaminated with 185-555,000 Bq/m2 (5-15 Ci/km2)
10,000 km2 were contaminated with more than 555,000 Bq/m2 (>
Areas in Europe that were contaminated with 37-185
The Soviet Union established two guidelines for long-term measures:
Inhabitants of areas with more than 1480 KBq/m2 contamination
had to be relocated.
Areas with more than 185 KBq/m2 contamination were earmarked
measures, such as decontamination of the soil and substitution
of the locally produced
food with imported goods.
Number of liquidators:
800,000 (600,000 – 1,000,000) people
(compared with the size of the German army: approx. 275,000
Collection of Chernobyl Analyses, edited by T. Imanaka
(Kyoto University, KURRI -KR-
21 and KURRI-KR-79, English),
Russian/English “International Journal of Radiation
Medicine” published in Kiev (Ed.
Prof. Angelina Nyagu, Kiev, ISSN 1562-1154) (complete collection
available in the
archives of the Society for Radiation Protection)
(1) UN-General Assembly A/50/418, 8.9.1995
(2) UN Chernobyl Forum (EGE): Environmental Consequences of
the Chernobyl Accident and Their Remediation: Twenty Years of
Experience, Working Material, August 2005.
Continuing Impact of Chernobyl from News Update Sources
Europe (Principally Russia, Ukraine,
in Fukushima 3, posted by Mochizuki, "25 years
have passed, but in Kiev Hospital, 90% of babies die before
they become 1 year old."
writers' group gets eye-opener in Chernobyl, by
Chiaki Yoshimura, ajw.asahi.com. (h/t Cleaning
up radiation hopeless, says writer: “There is no end”
— “We adults have to bear a responsibility for the
future” — “Impossible to decontaminate vast
forested areas, and Japan is a country of forests and mountains,”
by ENENews, 2 May 2012 and “Eye-Opener”:
Under 3% of children exposed to Chernobyl radiation while in
womb were diagnosed as healthy at age 7 -Asahi,
ENENews.com. 1 May 2012). [Ed. Note: Red boldface added by myself
members had to cross a checkpoint to enter a zone within a 30-kilometer
radius of the Chernobyl plant. The radiation levels hovered
around 5-6 microsieverts per hour when they visited the plant.
visitors saw cracks in concrete members of a shelter that was
designed to contain radioactive materials. About 3,000 people
continue to work on the site to build a new shelter and to continue
the decommissioning process.
to reports, construction costs for the new shelter are estimated
at 1.5 billion euros ($2 billion, or 162 billion yen). The process
relies on funding by European nations, which--ironically enough--is
creating jobs for the local communities...
names of more than 100 abandoned villages, which remain uninhabitable
to this day, are engraved on a monument in a park 17 km from
the nuclear plant.
has been demonstrated that it is impossible to decontaminate
vast forested areas," Nakamura said. "And Japan is
a country of forests and mountains."
a hospital in Narodychi, 60 km from the Chernobyl nuclear plant,
patients were taking radioactive iodine as a cancer treatment
in an isolation ward with lead-embedded walls.
man, who was 8 years old at the time of the disaster, developed
cancer in his thyroid gland this year. The
Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism in the Ukrainian capital
of Kiev told the delegation that only 2.5 percent of children,
who had been exposed to radiation prenatally, were diagnosed
as healthy at the age of 7... 2012-05-02 Pediatrician:
“Homes full of the most grossly deformed children we have
ever seen in the history of pediatrics — all around Chernobyl”
(VIDEO), enenews.com. 2012-04-27Workers
still at risk decades after Chernobyl blast, Euronews
(h/t TV: No chance removing melted nuclear fuel from reactor
at Chernobyl — 100s of times above airborne radiation
limit while digging nearby (VIDEO), ENENews.com)
“Because of the construction work they’ve dug down
to the level where the nuclear fuel and graphite lay. As a result
the level of radioactivity in the air has risen. While the work
is going on the level of the radioactivity in the air exceeds
the sanitary norm by hundreds, perhaps thousands of times,”
warned construction expert Yuri Andreyev.
the digging is finished experts say there will be no danger
from the dust at the site. But to reassure the builders and
technicians there are regular health checks. Each person is
monitored and his or her exposure to radiation is controlled.
reporter Angelina Kariakina said: “The experts believe
the encasement doesn’t solve the main Chernobyl problem,
that of the nuclear waste inside the demolished reactor. But
there is currently no chance of moving it to a safer storage
the report here
Legacy of Chernobyl by Laura Flanders, thenation.com.
– Graphic* Photographer: “My first reaction was
I was looking at a different race of people” — Brain
outside of skull, kidneys outside of torso, legs resembling
elephant — Some doctors feel strongly there will be no
more Belarus people in future (VIDEO), ENENews.com. 2012-04-25 The
Children Beyond Chernobyl Movie, agreenroad.blogspot.com.
are over 300 orphanages in Belarus, full of abandoned babies
and children, affected by low level radiation.
2008 powerful and beautifully filmed documentary "Children
Beyond Chernobyl" picks up where the Academy Award winning
"Chernobyl Heart" left off.
film examines the work of Chernobyl Children's Project International
(CCPI) and uses moving, intimate stories to describe how the
charity and its volunteers are making a difference in Chernobyl
affected regions of Belarus.
the first of 7 parts, meet the children of the Vesnova orphanage
of Belarus, and learn about children who travel to Ireland for
director Ali Hewson says that "you can't argue with the
economic impact" of Chernobyl, and describes why so many
volunteers refuse to walk away... 2012-04-25With
clean-up around Chernobyl abandoned, what can Japan learn from
1986 disaster?, mainichi.jp (h/t Mainichi:
Decontamination failed and abandoned after Chernobyl —
Residents allowed back, then forced to leave again — Now
no return for centuries says Zone official, ENENews.com)
the 14 years between the disaster and the year 2000 -- when
the last operating reactor at the plant was finally shut down
-- authorities apparently judged that there had been "little
improvement" in soil conditions, and they decided to halt
only decontamination operations going on now are for workers
doing safety work in and around the dead plant, including decommissioning
the reactors and preventing forest fires. There are currently
about 3,700 people who work inside the 30-kilometer radius no-go
area around the plant -- referred to simply as "the Zone"
-- and they must have their clothes decontaminated periodically.
During seasons when humidity is low, vehicles are typically
washed one or two times a week, and roads near the plant are
than 110,000 people once lived in the Zone, all of whom were
evacuated right after the accident. The Soviet authorities apparently
attempted to decontaminate the town of Prypiat -- where Chernobyl
plant workers and their families had lived -- soon after, but
with no success.
Zolotoverkh, 58, who is in charge of managing the Zone, says
there is no chance that decontamination will be resumed, adding,
"No one will be allowed to return, not after decades, not
110 kilometers southwest of the plant is the city of Korostyshiv,
which the former Soviet government labeled an "evacuation
advisory area" -- one of 440 residential communities given
the designation. The Soviet Union established four categories
for irradiated areas: forced evacuation areas, forced migration
areas, evacuation advisory areas, and radiation management areas.
Serious decontamination work in the advisory areas such as Korostyshiv
did not begin until 1990, four years after the accident.
municipal government, meanwhile, replaced the local top soil
as well as the roof of every home and school in its jurisdiction.
The city also paved over land that had been exposed to the Chernobyl
fallout, including the front yard of 53-year-old housewife Ms.
municipal official in charge of the project emphasizes that
the efforts resulted in a 50 percent drop in radiation in the
20 years after the accident...
Regarding decontamination of homes, Ukrainian government radiation
expert Mr. Tabachnyi says, `I can't say it's had any effect
but to calm the fears of the residents,' adding, `About $1 million
was thrown into reducing radiation levels in Korostyshiv to
1 sievert or less per year. It was definitely not a cost-effective
to form, governments with major nuclear programs or ambitions
are silent and are encouraging the view that it's time we forget
about Chernobyl. 2011-08-01 The real impact of the disaster
at ChNPP is yet to be seen, The Chernobyl Project blog
to professors Valeriy and Tatyana Glazko at the Agricultural
University in Kiev, the biological effects on human beings will
be available for analysis in 2025-2026. By then, the generation
that was born under direct influence of fallout radiation, will
have begun to form families and have children of their own.
We will then be able to see what genetic consequences the Chernobyl
disaster has had. The
scientists have noted, after tests on gophers and cows, that
not only simpler life forms are affected, but also more advanced
equivalents and this is confirmed by the results of experiments
concerning the effect of radiation on different species of animals,
including large mammals. The
testing on cows showed that on animals born before the disaster,
each would have an average of 0,9 calves a year, whilst of their
female offspring, exposed to alpha, beta and gamma radiation,
7 of 15 would not give birth. The fertility of cows of this
second generation decreased with almost 50%. Even
worse results were shown when cows from the second generation
were put in a testing farm in Polesie (area including northern
Ukraine, southern Belarus and parts of Russia): Only 7 of 27
gave offspring and the rest either did not, or the calves dies
shortly after being born. Observations
of several generations of species, lead to the following conclusion:
The effect of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation
has a negative effect on the reproductive capacity. According
to scientists, at least 30-35 generations are needed for a species
to adapt to increased background radiation. 2010-07-30 Chernobyl
zone shows decline in biodiversity by Victoria
Gill Science reporter, BBC News The
largest wildlife census of its kind conducted in Chernobyl has
revealed that mammals are declining in the exclusion zone surrounding
the nuclear power plant. The
study aimed to establish the most reliable way to measure the
impact on wildlife of contamination in the zone.
was based on almost four years of counting and studying animals
scientists say that birds provide the best "quantitative
measure" of these impacts.
report their findings in the journal Ecological Indicators...
2006-09, they counted and examined wildlife including insects,
amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
previously published work revealed some of the negative impacts
on birds and on insects of the low-level radiation that still
contaminated the exclusion zone surrounding the power plant.
new data on mammals and reptiles shows what Professor Moussaeu
described as a "strong signal" of reduced biodiversity
in these groups too.
research team compared the abundance of species in the exclusion
zone with similar types of habitats in the area, which were
truth is that these radiation contamination effects were so
large as to be overwhelming," Professor Mousseau told BBC
their census work, he and Dr Moller have also examined the effects
of radiation contamination on the animals. They say that these
impacts are particularly obvious in birds.
their studies on barn swallows, the team observed birds with
tumours on their feet, necks and around their eyes.
think they may be more susceptible, after their long migrations,
to additional environmental stress," explained Professor
"This is the first paper that provides quantitative, rigorous
data that the mammals really are significantly affected by contamination,"
he told BBC News.
said - it's not a bad idea to set this place up as a wildlife
haven - it's a natural laboratory where we can study the long-term
consequences of this kind of an accident."
Mousseau also criticised a recently made documentary film called
Chernobyl, A Natural History, which has been promoted by a French
production company as showing how nature has "recolonised"
the exclusion zone in the absence of man.
Mousseau said: "If society is ever to learn more about
the long term environmental consequences of large scale accidents
- and Chernobyl is just one of several - it is important that
we all take our responsibilities seriously." 2011-06-126,000
Bq/kg of Cesium-137 found in mushrooms from Bulgaria —
EU-wide food safety alert issued by ENENews Radioactive
mushrooms contaminated in Chernobyl disaster seized at British
port, Daily Mail, June 11, 2011:
ton of mushrooms containing ten times the safe level of a
radioactive metal has been seized and destroyed by health
Bulgarian consignment of dried wild mushrooms is thought to
have been irradiated by caesium 137 from the Chernobyl disaster
EU sets a maximum limit for caesium 137 in food of 600 becquerels
per kilogram [...]
amount of radioactivity found in the mushrooms destined for
British families was more than 6,000 becquerels.
Initially, it was thought the mushrooms have been irradiated
by the Fukushima NPP disaster [...]
UK Food Standards Agency has reported it has issued an EU-wide
food safety alert relating to the case. [...]
The world remembers Chernobyl "Activists hold
portraits of the victims of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
during an anti-nuclear demonstration held on the 24th
anniversary of the disaster outside the Indonesian Ministry
of Energy and Mineral Resources in Jakarta on April 26,
world remembers Chernobyl:A group
of relatives of people killed in the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear
disaster gathered in Moscow on Monday to commemorate their dead
and pay their respects, presstv.ir
protest rally called Chernobyl Way was also held in the Belarusian
capital Minsk on Monday, which was the anniversary of the Chernobyl
nuclear power plant disaster.
demonstrators said that the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe
must not be concealed at the state level and demanded that benefits
and allowances be paid to liquidators and persons affected by
the disaster as radiation spread across Ukraine, Russia, and
on Monday, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovich asked for more
international assistance to keep the Chernobyl site safely sealed...
research conducted by the American Geophysical Union indicates
that it will take between 180 and 320 years for the Caesium
137 — a radioactive isotope — to disappear from
the local environment, much longer than the 30 years that had
been expected." 2009-12-15Chernobyl
Exclusion Zone Radioactive Longer Than Expected
by Alexis Madrigal, wired.com, December 15, 2009
SAN FRANCISCO — Chernobyl, the worst nuclear
accident in history, created an inadvertent laboratory to study
the impacts of radiation — and more than twenty years
later, the site still holds surprises.
Reinhabiting the large exclusion zone around the accident site
may have to wait longer than expected. Radioactive cesium isn’t
disappearing from the environment as quickly as predicted, according
to new research presented here Monday at the meeting of the
American Geophysical Union. Cesium 137's half-life — the
time it takes for half of a given amount of material to decay
— is 30 years. In addition to that, cesium-137’s
total ecological half-life — the time for half the cesium
to disappear from the local environment through processes such
as migration, weathering, and removal by organisms is also typically
30 years or less, but the amount of cesium in soil near Chernobyl
isn’t decreasing nearly that fast. And scientists don’t
Payouts: Knowledge and Compensation in the Chernobyl Aftermath
by Adriana Petryna 2006Chernobyl:
20 Years, 20 Lives
long does an explosion last? Is it over when the final storm
from the pressure wave has died down, or when the subsequent
fire has been extinguished, or when the media no longer report
on destruction - or does the explosion continue until the final
remnants of human suffering are forgotten and genetic mutations
have ceased.?" - EarthVision
– Twenty Years, Twenty Lives is EarthVision's photo journalistic
journey through the countries of the Ukraine, Belarus, Russia,
Latvia, Sweden, France, and UK. It follows twenty people in
their daily lives nowadays and reflects on how they changed
after the events of April 1986. The goal of the project is to
learn from the history and look at the accident from the present
perspective at different levels, both locally and globally.
20 years after the Chernobyl disaster, controversy continues
about the true effects of the disaster. Chernobyl Children's
Project International believes that the story of Chernobyl can
be best told through the eyes of the variety of people who have
been affected by the disaster. That is why we are pleased to
present this exhibit online – the views expressed are
those of EarthVision and their subjects. The text and photographs
are the property of EarthVision and are not to be used without
In the spring of 2012 Norwegian news media ran stories about
radioactivity due to 137Cs in the vegetation of Norwegian mountain
areas, and in the meat from reindeer and sheep grazing in these
areas. The activity could be traced back to the emission from
the nuclear power station in Chernobyl in April 1986, which
lead to an airborne radioactive contamination with 131I, 134Cs,
137Cs and other radionuclides…
"The fall of 2011 was a good year for mushrooms in Norway….
In some areas the radioactive 137Cs concentration in sheep meat
was found to exceed 4000 Bq kg"
Established Animal Radiation 'Controls' Due To Cesium Contamination,
the meltdown and melt through happened at Chernobyl, dangerous
levels of radiation spread far and wide for thousands of square
miles, including into areas such as UK, Scotland, Russia, Norway,
Belarus and many other countries.
countries like the UK established controls on the eating of
meat from animals that were in areas contaminated with Cesium
radiation. They rules were put in place to protect the public
from eating meat that contained over 1,000 Bq/kg of Cesium radiation.
following article explains the animal controls in place inside
the UK, since Chernobyl exploded. Affected and radioactively
contaminated animals could not be exported, consumed or sold
inside our outside of these 'hot' zones unless they were tested
first, and found to be 'safe', with less than 1,000 Bq/kg of
monitoring and controls survey reports
Food Standards Agency is responsible for ensuring food safety
by preventing products with unacceptable levels of radioactivity
from entering the food chain. Widespread monitoring in 1986
identified food safety concerns from meat from sheep grazing
in the affected areas. The Agency manages restrictions on the
movement of sheep in the affected areas to protect consumers.
Agency's primary concern is to ensure food safety by maintaining
these controls, but also remove controls where these are no
the 9,800 UK holdings, and more than 4 million sheep, originally
placed under restriction following the accident, there are 334
farms that remain under some form of restriction in North Wales,
and in Cumbria, only eight farms still remain under restriction.
All Mark and Release controls were lifted in Northern Ireland
in 2000 and in Scotland in 2010.
Agency has reviewed the post-Chernobyl sheep controls to assess
whether these protective measures are still required to maintain
food safety. To inform this review, an assessment has been made
of the levels of radiocaesium in sheep within the restricted
areas during the summers of 2010 and 2011, and the potential
consumer doses if control measures were to be lifted. The survey
showed that the levels of radiocaesium rarely exceed the 1,000
Bq/kg limit during the summer months, when levels tend to be
at their peak. An assessment of the radiation doses that more
highly exposed consumers could receive from eating sheep meat
from these farms, shows that the consumer risk is now very low.
The assessment report can be accessed via the link below.
Agency has launched a consultation to seek the views of a range
of stakeholders on the removal of the existing post-Chernobyl
sheep controls. Details of the consultation and how to respond
can be accessed via the link below.
the review consultation period, and until a final decision is
made, the current restrictions on the movement of sheep will
remain in place. Background
to the Chernobyl accident
1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the
former USSR (now Ukraine) released large quantities of radioactivity
into the atmosphere. Some of this radioactivity, predominantly
radiocaesium-137, was deposited on certain upland areas of the
UK, where sheep farming is the primary land-use.
to the particular chemical and physical properties of the peaty
soil types present in these upland areas, the radiocaesium is
still able to pass easily from soil to grass and so accumulates
in sheep. Food
maximum limit of 1,000 becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of radiocaesium
is applied to sheep meat affected by the accident to protect
consumers. This limit was introduced in the UK in 1986, based
on advice from the European Commission's Article 31 group of
powers provided in the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985
(FEPA), which can be found on the Office of Public Sector Information
website via the link below, emergency orders have been used
since 1986 to impose restrictions on the movement and sale of
sheep exceeding the limit in certain parts of Cumbria, North
Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The emergency orders define
geographical areas, often termed 'restricted areas', within
which the controls must be followed. Under the FEPA orders,
sheep with levels of contamination above the limit are not allowed
to enter the food chain.
management system known as the Mark and Release scheme operates
in restricted areas. Under this scheme, a farmer wishing to
move sheep out of a restricted area can have them monitored
to determine the level of radiocaesium.
live monitoring technique is used, where a radiation monitor
is held against the sheep, giving a count rate (in counts per
second), which is converted to a concentration (becquerels per
kilogram or Bq/kg) using a derived conversion factor. To allow
for inherent variability in live monitoring results, a pass
mark is applied, which has been set so there is only a 1 in
40 chance of a sheep above the limit giving a monitor reading
sheep that exceed the monitoring pass mark are marked with a
dye and are not released from restrictions. Those that pass
are allowed to enter the food chain. http://www.food.gov.uk/science/surveillance/radiosurv/chernobyl/
however, the government agency in charge of these 'hot spots'
is has lifted ALL CONTAMINATED ANIMAL CONTROLS, (as of Feb,
2012) despite the fact that animals are still testing in the
range of 1,000 Bq/kg of Cesium radiation, and will be for the
next 300 years (the half life of cesium, times 10)" http://www.food.gov.uk/news/consultations/ukwideconsults/2011/removalpostchernobylsheepcontrol
Virus or Fukushima Radiation? (YouTube) (2:15)
March 4, 2012]
of the well known effects of radiation coming out of nuclear
plant accidents is to knock down the immune system, making an
animal or human more subject to catching all kinds of diseases,
UK has recently reported an outbreak of Schmallenberg virus.
There are numerous reports of deformities and deaths of lambs
in the UK and Scotland, which would be expected with these doses
of Cesium radiation, as well as from other radioactive substances.
a 1996 report; "This month several deformed lambs have
been born on the farm. One had no lower jaw, another was missing
bones. A third delivered by Mr Roberts' son, Emlyn, seemed like
a solid mass of gristle. We've not seen anything like that before,"
said Mr Roberts. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/nuclear-cloud-hangs-over-the-hills-1306191.html
matches very well with what happens to animals after a nuclear
accident, (as well as human beings). Now let's fast forward
virus hits UK farms (YouTube) (2:11)]
1, 2012 - The effects of this 'virus' affect about 10% (video
above) to 50% (video below) of all of the lambs. The limb and
body defects look remarkably like the effects of low level radiation
virus 'caught UK by surprise' (YouTube) (1:40)]
if this virus is truly causing all of these deaths and deformities,
it would be also be a 'normal' and expected effect of low level
nuclear radiation reducing the immune strength.
closing question is; are any of these sheep and their offspring
that have these deformities and worse, being tested for radiation
exposure? Is the virus being found primarily in areas that are
also 'hot' zones?
anyone testing for things like cesium, strontium, plutonium,
uranium in the bodies of these dead lambs?
far at least, the interest of the farmers and government authorities
seems to be to get rid of any traces or evidence that low level
radiation is impacting animals in any way, rather then exploring
in depth the effects of low level radiation on animal health.
Established Animal Radiation 'Controls' Due To Cesium Contamination http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html 2003-05-03Chernobyl
accident still haunts UK by Zackary Moss, bellona.org
"Nearly seventeen years after the world?s worst nuclear
power accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant, some 400 British
farms are still being monitored for radioactive contamination."
cancer in children and young adults in the North of England.
Is increasing incidence related to the Chernobyl accident?by
Cotterill S. J., Pearce M. S., Parker L.
in German via Translate.google.com to English: "Time course
of radiation exposure by incorporated (ingested into the body)
of cesium-137 in mSv per year. Average for a reference group
of 30 male subjects measured their incorporation in the whole
body counter of the BfS [Federal Office for Radiation Protection]
in Neuherberg and the resulting radiation dose was calculated
BfS web page).
Northern and Central European
Countries (South of the Baltic and English Channel, North of
Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl,
turns out that generations after the Chernobyl disaster, boar
(wild pigs), deer and potentially other creatures are still
unfit to eat, despite living more than 950 miles away from the
turns out that depending on what the pigs and deer are eating,
anywhere from 20% to 80% of the animals are contaminated with
radioactive Cesium 137, making them unfit to eat due to high
radiation levels. After measuring, the government reimburses
the hunters for game that is thrown in the garbage, as explained
in the following video by AP.
Boars Contaminated With Chernobyl Radiation, (1:24)
August 19, 2010]
still feel the consequences of Chernobyl's fallout here,"
said Christian Kueppers, a radiation expert at Germany's Institute
for Applied Ecology in Freiburg. The problem is so common that
now all wild boars bagged by hunters in the affected regions
have to be checked for radiation. Government compensation to
hunters whose quarry has to be destroyed has added up to €460,000
($650,000) over the past 12 months, Hagbeck said."
number of animals that have to be disposed of numbers in the
thousands each year. The unsafe radiation trigger in Germany
is 600 Bq per kilogram or more.
the UK the level of unsafe radiation was triggered at 1,000
Bq per kilogram Cesium 137 in sheep and other animals consumed
for their meat. However, that testing and contaminated meat
exclusion program has recently been dropped completely, so people
in the UK can now eat radioactively contaminated sheep or other
meat, with no radiation measurement or warning labels at all.
This also means that this meat can be exported abroad.
average level of Cesium radiation found in meat before Chernobyl
was less than .5 Bq per kilogram . A total amount of Cesium
consumed per year would total around 100 Bq from both plant,
milk and animal sources, (all of it coming from the nuclear
bomb testing era)
also has a problem with radioactive Cesium at levels much higher
than normal in mushrooms, deer and wild pigs.
July of 2010, Spiegel reported that; "according to the
Environment Ministry in Berlin, almost €425,000 ($555,000)
was paid out to hunters in 2009 in compensation for wild boar
meat that was too contaminated by radiation to be sold for consumption.
That total is more than four times higher than compensation
payments made in 2007. www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,709345,00.html
German Environment Ministry reports that the average level of
radioactive Cesium is 7,000 Bq per kg in wild pigs that live
in the southern parts of Germany including Bavaria, near the
Czech Republic. So far, Germany alone has paid out over €238
million to pay hunters for damages related to Chernobyl radiation,
ever since Chernobyl Reactor IV exploded on April 26, 1986.
are hunters being paid for wild pigs that test high in radioactivity?
Germany has an Atomic Energy Law which forces the government
to compensate people for harm done by radiation. It not only
regulates nuclear energy, but it also requires that the government
pay compensation to anyone who harvests a radioactively contaminated
many hunters prefer to take home a wild boar rather than cash,
Bavarian hunters have been searching for ways to reduce the
radiation in wild pigs. It seems that a chemical called Giese
salt (AFCF) speeds up the excretion of cesium in wild pigs.
This chemical binds itself to cesium, and is then taken out
of the body. This same chemical is also being used in farm animals
to reduce their radioactive burden.
Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A
Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-boars-and-deer-unfit-to-eat.html 2010-07-30A
Quarter Century after Chernobyl Radioactive Boar on the Rise
in Germany by Charles Hawley, spiegel.de
of the boar that are killed land on the plates of diners across
Germany, but it is forbidden to sell meat containing high levels
of radioactive caesium-137 -- any animals showing contamination
levels higher than 600 becquerel per kilogram must be disposed
of. But in some areas of Germany, particularly in the south,
wild boar routinely show much higher levels of contamination.
According to the Environment Ministry, the average contamination
for boar shot in Bayerischer Wald, a forested region on the
Bavarian border with the Czech Republic, was 7,000 becquerel
per kilogram. Other regions in southern Germany aren't much
Atomic Energy Law, which regulates the use of nuclear energy
in the country, mandates that the government in Berlin pay compensation
to hunters who harvest contaminated animals. Contaminated
boar are particularly susceptible to radioactive contamination
due to their predilection for chomping on mushrooms and truffles,
which are particularly efficient at absorbing radioactivity.
Indeed, whereas radioactivity in some vegetation is expected
to continue declining, the contamination of some types of mushrooms
and truffles will likely remain the same, and may even rise
slightly -- even a quarter century after the Chernobyl accident.
the regions where it is particularly problematic, all boar that
are shot are checked for radiation," reports Andreas Leppmann,
from the German Hunting Federation. There are 70 measuring stations
in Bavaria alone.
addition, for the last year and a half, Bavarian hunters have
been testing ways to reduce the amount of caesium-137 absorbed
by wild boar. A chemical mixture known as Giese salt, when ingested,
has been shown to accelerate the excretion of the radioactive
substance. Giese salt, also known as AFCF, is a caesium binder
and has been used successfully to reduce radiation in farm animals
after Chernobyl. According to Joachim Reddemann, an expert on
radioactivity in wild boar with the Bavarian Hunting Federation,
a pilot program in Bavaria that started a year and a half ago
has managed to significantly reduce the number of contaminated
Countries (Italy, Balkans, Greece)
of births in Italy after the Chernobyl accident
(PDF) by Bertollini R, Di Lallo D, Mastroiacovo P, Perucci
CA originally appeared in the Scandinavian Journal of Work
and Environmental Health 1990;16(2):96-101, also available
at PubMed and in Google.com
viewer. [Ed. Note: It is well worth covering Italy's response
for several reasons. First, the Italian government took more
prompt and effective action than many other governments by restricting
food sources -- a primary source of dangerous bioaccumulation
of radionuclides -- a type of action sadly neglected by most
European governments during the Fukushima catastrophe. To its
credit, major Italian media also alerted the public to the dangers.
Secondly, Italy -- like most other European countries -- experienced
serious contamination in a matter of just two weeks, whose effects
continue to persist in certain areas even to this day. Third,
it is well documented that radiation increases sterility, miscarriages,
and birth defects, therefore the significant reduction in the
Italian birthrate due to Chernobyl was probably a combination
of both radiation effects and voluntary abortions motivated
by a fear of potential radiation effects -- which are very real]. Abstract
the Chernobyl accident serious concern spread throughout Italy
about the possible effects of the consequent exposure to radioactivity
on fetuses. A reduction of births in the first three months
of 1987, and particularly in February (7.2% reduction in the
birth rate), was observed throughout Italy. In April-June 1987
a 4.8% increase in the number of births was observed. The magnitude
of both phenomena varied in different areas of the country.
The total number of births in the first six months of 1987 was
very similar to the expected (264,241 versus 263,659). Induced
abortions increased in Lombardia (northern Italy) in June (+1.6%)
and July of 1986 (+3.4%) and in Campania (southern Italy) in
June (+12.7%) and August (+4.3%). No increase in legal abortions
was detected in Lazio (central Italy). Italian data suggest
a voluntary decrease in the number of planned pregnancies and
the termination of some of them in the first weeks after the
accident as a consequence of post-disaster stress.
paragraphs of main article:]
the Chernobyl accident the radioactive cloud produced by the
explosion of the Soviet nuclear plant spread over Europe and
virtually the whole northern hemisphere from the end of April
to the beginning of May 1986.
cloud reached Italy on April 30th. An increase in environmental
radioactivity was detected through- out the country, the highest
observed levels occurring in northern Italy. The Italian government
introduced countermeasures to limit exposure to radiation; these
measures included a prohibition of the marketing and consumption
of fresh milk, milk products, and leafy vegetables. The ban
was introduced on the third of May and lasted until May 12th
for leafy vegetables, and until May 24th for milk and milk products.
additional radioactivity was low throughout the country. Estimates
of the radioactive exposure of individuals in the following
months showed that the average effective dose of adults in Italy
in the first year after the accident was 0.6 mSv (60 mRem);
exposure was higher in the north (0.7 mSv = 70 mRem) than in
central (0.6 mSv = 60 mRem) and in southern (0.5 mSv = 50 mRem)
Italy (1). In comparison, the average natural background radiation
is about 2 mSv/ year (200 mRem) (1). Therefore the additional
exposure due to the accident was between 25 and 35 0/0 of the
yearly dose of the natural background.
consequences of the accident on the environment and on health
were extensively covered by the media... 1989-10-12
contents of meat in Italy after the Chernobyl accident and their
changes during the cooking process byM. Lofti, M. Nataro, S. Piermattei, L. Tommasino,
D. Azimi-Garakani, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
of radioactive contamination in meat have been studied, along
with ways of decreasing them. Specifically, radiocaesium concentrations
in a range of samples of different types of meat collected throughout
Italy since April 1986 are presented here. The samples are of
beef, lamb, pork, chicken, turkey and rabbit. It was found that
the radiocaesium content of lamb is higher than that in any
of the other meat types considered here. Studies of the decrease
in the radiocaesium content of meat during cooking showed that,
when the meat is cooked in salt water (1%), the activity decreases
by as much as 80% relative to uncooked samples. 1987-10-31The
victims of chernobyl in Greece: induced abortions after the
accident by D Trichopoulos, X Zavitsanos, C Koutis,
P Drogari, C Proukakis, and E Petridou, Department of Hygiene
and Epidemiology, University of Athens Medical School, ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
(PDF of page view here)
estimated that in Greece during the period of concern after
the Chernobyl accident-that is, during most of May 1986-23%
of early pregnancies at perceived risk were artificially terminated
(((9103-7032)/ 9103)x 100) and that during the whole of 1986
about 2500 otherwise wanted pregnancies (2-5% of the total)
were interrupted because of perceived radiation risk (since
there was only a small deficit of live births during March 1987
it is unlikely that there will be an important Chernobyl related
deficit of live births in the subsequent months). This empirical
estimate is not incompatible with the speculative figure of
the International Atomic Energy Agency of 100, 000 to 200,000
Chernobyl related induced abortions in the whole of Western
people suffer from continuing chronic low-dose radiation 23
years after the catastrophe, owing primarily to consumption
of radioactively contaminated food. An important consideration
is the fact that given an identical diet, a child's radiation
exposure is three- to fivefold higher than that of an adult.
Since more than 90% of the radiation burden nowadays is due
to Caesium-137, which has a half-life of about 30 years, contaminated
areas will continue to be dangerously radioactive for roughly
the next three centuries.
children have the same menu as adults, they get up to five
times higher dose burdens from locally produced foodstuffs
because of their lower weight and more active processes of
metabolism. Children living in rural villages have a dose
burden five to six times higher than city children of the
exposure to small amounts of radionuclides (mostly Cs-137)
is virtually unavoidable as they get into the body with food
(up to 94%), with drinking water (up to 5%), and through the
air (about 1%). Accumulation of radionuclides in the body
is dangerous, primarily for children, and for those living
in the contaminated territories where there are high levels
of Cs-137 in local foodstuffs. The incorporation of radionuclides
is now the primary cause of the deterioration of public health
in the contaminated territories.
has shown that existing official radioactive monitoring systems
are inadequate (not only in the countries of the Former Soviet
Union). Generally, the systems cover territories selectively,
do not measure each person, and often conceal important facts
when releasing information. The common factor among all governments
is to minimize spending for which they are not directly responsible,
such as the Chernobyl meltdown, which occurred 23 years ago.
Thus officials are not eager to obtain objective data of radioactive
contamination of communities, individuals, or food.
have to take responsibility not only for our own health, but
for the health of future generations of humans, plants, and
animals, which can be harmed by mutations resulting from exposure
to even the smallest amount of radioactive contamination.
[Nesterenko, A. V., Nesterenko, V. B. and Yablokov]
IN MEDICINE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Metals Health Consequences
of Chernobyl, by Sarah Kleinfeld, faculty.virginia.edu.
"Effective dose is measured in millisieverts (mSv) and
the WHO report states that the average annual dose of radiation
worldwide due to background radiation is along the lines of
2.4 mSv. It is believed that in the period from 1986 to 2005,
the average effective dose that people received in Belarus,
Ukraine, and Russia from Chernobyl was 10-30 mSv. Those who
were exposed to highly contaminated areas had an average effective
dose of 50 mSv. Though this amount appears high, the WHO report
states that inhabitants of India, Iran, Brazil, and China received
effective doses of 100-200 mSv over a twenty year period due
to high levels of background radiation in areas of these countries.
The average annual dose that most people received due to Chernobyl
was around 1 mSv, lower than the world wide average of 2.4 mSv."
cancer in the United States since accident at Chernobyl
(.pdf), by Iujam Reid and Joseph Mangano, BMJ,
is an apparent five year lag between exposure to radioactive
fallout from Chernobyl and rising rates of thyroid cancer. In
contrast, lag times have been reported to be up to 40 years
for iatrogenic thyroid cancer due to irradiation. Continued
tracking of rates may show a progressive rise in thyroid cancer
attributable to fallout of a variety of (iodine and other) high
energy nucleotides from Chernobyl. It seems prudent to examine
further the long term effects, in particular thyroid cancer,
on populations distant from Chernobyl." 1986 (For this time period) Radiation
Sickness, by Toni Reita, natural-health-home-remedies.com.
Ernest Sternglass of University of Pittsburgh presented the
following infant mortality rate for the Pacific states, following
chernobyl fallout in May 1986, just one month after Chernobyl:
* May 1986 54% increase infant mortality in Washington state
* May 1986 48% increase infant mortality in California compared
to previous June
* June 1986 245% increase deaths per thousand live births
in Washington state
* June 1986 900% increase infant mortality rate per live births
of Chernobyl with Fukushima
Nuclear scientists concerned about structural safety of Fukushima
fuel pools — 85 times more long-lived radioactivity than
Chernobyl (VIDEO), by ENENews.com. 2012-04-22Chernobyl
expert takes a look at Tohoku's trees by Winifred
Bird, Special Special to The Japan Times, japantimes.co.jp.
Times on Plant Mutations: “Trees died and others grew
in abnormal shapes” says ecologist visiting Japan from
Chernobyl by ENENews.com, April 22, 2012).
situation around Chernobyl was complicated by the wide range
of radionuclides emitted during the disaster.
in the long term Japan faces mostly radiocesium contamination,
Ukraine also has to deal with contaminants including radiostrontium
and, near the plant, plutonium. Soon after the accident these
contaminants began moving from the surface of plants into the
leaf litter and the soil below. From there some of them were
taken up by plants, returned to the soil via fallen leaves,
and taken up again in a continuous cycle.
the contamination was highest, some trees died and others grew
in abnormal shapes. Starting about 5 to 10 km from the plant,
however, Zibtsev says the forests appear normal — if unusually
rich in wildlife, due to the absence of humans. Nevertheless,
the contamination remains.
explains that as long as trees and leaf litter are healthy,
forest ecosystems trap radionuclides and prevent them from seeping
down into the groundwater, or being carried into streams by
erosion — or blowing away as dust in the wind.
management policy has aimed to maximize the role of forests
as holding tanks for contamination rather than attempt decontamination.
approach has been to let the ecosystem work. Fungi is much more
effective than millions of people (at containing contamination),"
Zibtsev said. He is skeptical of proposals in Japan to decontaminate
parts of the forest by removing leaf litter, undergrowth and
tree branches, because such measures could undermine forest
like if your body is functioning, and you decide, why don't
I remove my liver to clean it? And then you realize you can't
live without it," he says, with characteristic black humor.
"People in Japan want the forest to be clean. They want
to rewind before 3/11. (But) we're living in a new reality."
Ukraine, that new reality persists 26 years after the disaster.
The Chernobyl exclusion zone remains off-limits for living,
its forests untouched except for experiments and minimal management
aimed at preventing fires, tree disease, and insect infestation
(which, by weakening the forest, weakens its role as buffer).
the exclusion zone, the government regulates forest use according
to contamination levels, which scientists have carefully monitored.
receive maps showing where to avoid harvesting mushrooms, hunting
wildlife and grazing their livestock. Because food now accounts
for 70 to 90 percent of exposure, Zibtsev says, this greatly
reduces health risks... 2012-02-23Stringent?
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Chernobyl vs Fukushima
video is a combination of two different video segments to show
a contrast in attitudes toward the radiation safety standards
for food between Belarus and Japan.
first one is from a Swiss TSI TV program entitled "Ten
Years after the Chernobyl Accident" (1998), broadcasted
on Japan's NHK BS1 in an unidentified year. A scientist speaking
in the segment is late Dr. Vassilli Nesterenko, a physicist
from Belarus, who made tremendous efforts on the consequences
of the Chernobyl catastrophe (See wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vassili_Nesterenko).
also note that even children who lived more than 200km away
from the Chernobyl plant suffered from terrible health problems.
second segment is from a NHK Fukushima's local news program
called "HamaNaka Aizu Today" aired on February 16,
2012, reporting the new radiation safety standards for food
that will become effective in April.
original video: http://youtu.be/JyBrDLq7A8o"
(which has embedded this video at its site) comments:
the following short video, you will see how Chernobyl area food
supplies are regulated and what they do to test children easily,
quickly and accurately for INTERNAL radiation exposure to Cesium.
will see a child sitting on a metal type of chair, which is
actually a Cesium detector hooked up to a computer. The internal
radiation dose accumulated per kilogram is displayed on the
computer monitor in front of the parents and health investigator.
computer screen shows the radiation load to the parent, and
they talk to the parent about how to reduce the radiation load
in the child. (Certain foods are known to concentrate radiation
much more than others, so it is fairly easy to avoid these)
radiation safety authorities around Chernobyl have set food
safety standards that allow only a maximum of 30 Bq per Kg of
food for consumption by children.
areas in Japan that are contaminated have no such radiation
testing program, (doctors and hospitals in Japan actively discourage
internal radiation testing, or post signs saying no testing
such internal radiation testing devices as the one shown above
in the video exist in Japan (to our knowledge). These devices
make it easy and fast to determine the total Cesium load of
a child exposed to radiation.
only way to get tested by the government in Japan is to go to
special clinics where you only get a report sent to you some
time later, not instantly. And the testing device does not actually
measure internal radiation, so no one has been found with any
unsafe internal radiation yet. These government sponsored clinics
measure 'energy' fields, not radiation.
video also explains the 'new' lower safety standards, but fails
to mention that these previous higher limits are actually VERY
HIGH, and the original radiation food and water safety limits
were MUCH LOWER than the new proposed limits. Basically, they
are lying about what they are doing..." 2012-02-08U.S.
University: Low-level radiation appears to have had immediate
effects on bird populations in Fukushima Pref. — Areas
surveyed are mostly still open to human occupation — Worse
than expected — More pronounced than Chernobyl
by ENENews.com 2012-02-02Study
finds Fukushima worse than Chernobyl on bird population —
“Dramatically” elevated DNA mutation rates and extinctions
— Insect life significantly reduced — Shows immediate
consequence of radiation by ENENews.com 2012-01-30Mainichi:
Abnormalities in offspring of mammals to get particular attention
in Fukushima study by gov’t — Shrinking brain capacity,
drop in population seen in Chernobyl wildlife by
starts study of radiation effects on wildlife near Fukushima
Source: The Mainichi Daily News, Date: Jan 30, 2012
Ministry of the Environment has started a study to examine
the effects of radiation from the disaster-struck Fukushima
No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant on nearby plant and wildlife, particularly
their reproductive functions. [...]
specimens will be checked for radioactive cesium levels, and
also for anomalies in their appearance or DNA. The study will
pay particular attention to the reproductive faculties of
amphibians and mammals and checks for abnormalities in their
the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, abnormalities in the
local swallow population were reported, such as low white
blood cell counts, shrinking brain capacities and a drop in
bird numbers. Even 26 years later, radiation is said to be
affecting the area. [...]
Reactor 3 [at Fukushima] uses mixed uranium-plutonium oxide
(MOX) fuel in the core. According to Edwin Lyman of the UCS,
“the use of MOX generally increases the consequences
of severe accidents in which large amounts of radioactive
gas and aerosol are released compared to the same accident
in a reactor using non-MOX fuel…. Because of this, the
number of latent cancer fatalities resulting from an accident
could increase by as much as a factor of five for a full core
of MOX fuel compared to the same accident with no MOX [such
as at Chernobyl].”
Natalia Manzurova in the Pripyat dead zone while serving as
a 1988 Chernobyl "liquidator." (Photo from the 23
March 2011 article Chernobyl
cleanup survivor’s message for Japan: ‘Run away
as quickly as possible’). In April 2011 this scientist
and activist heroine traveled to the U.S. to help warn Americans
about the Fukushima dangers ahead. The article Chernobyl
Impact Felt 25 Year Later by Konstantin Vergerowsky captioned
the photo below: "Nataliya Manzurova, a lead engineer
in charge of cleaning up in the aftermath of Chernobyl, says
she experienced headaches and nosebleeds from her work there."
(Photo by H. Darr Beiser, USA TODAY)
cleanup survivor’s message for Japan: ‘Run away
as quickly as possible’ by Dana Kennedy,
aolnews.com, Mar 22, 2011 – 1:23 PM
Manzurova, one of the few survivors among those directly involved
in the long cleanup of Chernobyl, was a 35-year-old engineer
at a nuclear plant in Ozersk, Russia, in April 1986 when she
and 13 other scientists were told to report to the wrecked,
burning plant in the northern Ukraine.
was just four days after the world's biggest nuclear disaster
spewed enormous amounts of radiation into the atmosphere and
forced the evacuation of 100,000 people.
and her colleagues were among the roughly 800,000 "cleaners"
or "liquidators" in charge of the removal and burial
of all the contamination in what's still called the dead zone.
spent 4 1/2 years helping clean the abandoned town of Pripyat,
which was less than two miles from the Chernobyl reactors. The
plant workers lived there before they were abruptly evacuated.
now 59 and an advocate for radiation victims worldwide, has
the "Chernobyl necklace" -- a scar on her throat from
the removal of her thyroid -- and myriad health problems. But
unlike the rest of her team members, who she said have all died
from the results of radiation poisoning, and many other liquidators,
News spoke with Manzurova about the nuclear disaster in Japan
with the help of a translator on the telephone Monday from Vermont.
Manzurova, who still lives in Ozersk, was beginning a one-week
informational tour of the U.S. organized by the Beyond Nuclear
watchdog group. AOL
News: What was your first reaction when you heard about
It felt like déjà vu. I felt so worried for the
people of Japan and the children especially. I know the experience
that awaits them.
experts say Fukushima is not as bad as Chernobyl.
nuclear accident is different, and the impact cannot be truly
measured for years. The government does not always tell the
truth. Many will never return to their homes. Their lives will
be divided into two parts: before and after Fukushima. They'll
worry about their health and their children's health. The government
will probably say there was not that much radiation and that
it didn't harm them. And the government will probably not compensate
them for all that they've lost. What they lost can't be calculated.
message do you have for Japan?
away as quickly as possible. Don't wait. Save yourself and don't
rely on the government because the government lies. They don't
want you to know the truth because the nuclear industry is so
powerful. … 2010-10-13Belarus
Expert: Radiation limits too high after Fukushima — Japan
allows 20 times more cesium in drinking water than near Chernobyl
by ENENews TOKYO,
Japan — Vladimir Babenko is deputy director of
the Belrad Institute of Radiation Safety in the former Soviet
republic of Belarus. Babneko advised local residents after the
meltdown at Chernobyl, just across the Belarus border in Ukraine.
a press conference in Tokyo he urged Japan to lower food radiation
limits to “realistic” levels.
“cannot understand the thresholds designated by the Japanese
government for food and beverage products, saying they are much
higher than Belarusian standards.”
noted that the allowable limit of 200 becquerels per kilogram
of cesium in Japan drinking water is 20 times as high as the
maximum allowable level in Belarus.
food radiation limits set too high: Belarusian scientist,
Kyodo, October 13, 2011 [undated]Energy News search: Chernobyl
comparisons. (Ed. Note: click on this link and
it will pull up Chernobyl-related articles at Energy News at: http://enenews.com/category/japan/fukushima-reactors/chernobyl-comparisons
Theories Regarding the
Cause(s) of the Chernobyl Explosion(s)
hypothetical Chernobyl reactor accident sequence offered by
20 Years On, news.bbc.co.uk, 2006, which includes an accident
alternative explanation for the cause of a possible Chernobyl
"atomic explosion" compared to Dimitri Khalezov's
man-made mini-nuke hypothesis: The above illustration is found
Non-Battle of Fukushima … by "Steve From Virginia,"
economic-undertow.com, November 7, 2011. "Figure 5: Super-criticality
is an issue of time: as nuclei split energetically, the tendency
is for the atoms to fly away from each other. The material separates
and the reactions cease. The problem emerges when there is no
place for the atoms to go. Chain reactions can then propagate
for generation after generation with an accompanying energy
buildup until the bonds of mass and inertia represented by the
ground … are overcome."
the Devil Gets Old...,
The Chernobyl Project blog entry dated 27 Sept 2011, photo
caption: "V. Bryukhanov and N. Fomin during trial in
1986." The article states "Generally Bryukhanov's
original points of view haven't changed much over the years
but he carefully avoids making definite statements, but still
claims that the real truth about Chernobyl will never be learnt
because `they are still concealing it' and he doesn't believe
that the disaster has taught anyone anything." [Ed.
Note: Bryukhanov was the Director of the Chernobyl nuclear
power plant. According to the article, he got ten years in
prison for gross violation of safety regulations. An important
source of evidence regarding the actual cause of the Chernobyl
catastrophe are the trial testimonies. According to various
sources, many trial testimonies and results of investigations
Accounts Regarding the Cause
of the Chernobyl Catastrophe and Stakes involved
[Editor's Note: In reviewing all of the major videos on YouTube
that explain the cause of the Chernobyl catastrophe, I observe
that they generally tend to offer significantly different explanations
for what really happened -- which I find suspicious. Please
see my "Criminal and Other Subversive Analysis" section
below where I quote from Russian scientists
and a Swedish blogger who also voice concern about inconsistencies.]
Non-Battle of Fukushima …by
Steve From Virginia, economic-undertow.com
There have been numerous criticality incidents since the beginning
of the nuclear era and many share the characteristics of fuel
configured inadvertently or the presence of neutron reflectors.
A low energy reaction would cause a fuel geyser that would blow
core material and the plug through the roof of the reactor building,
much like the explosion in [Fukushima] reactor 3. This would
require only a few generations of chain reactions in the super-critical
A high energy reaction of many generations would cause a substantial
nuclear explosion. Critical components would be: material of
sufficient mass, this material confined by incompressible material
(sandy soil), weight of the core and the plug above it pressing
the core against the neutron reflector. More than fifty generations
of chain reactions would cause a multi-kiloton explosion beneath
A powerful explosion would propagate a shock wave that would
travel through the ground and compress other cores that might
have burnt their way into the ground. This compression would
cause even more powerful nuclear explosions. This was how a
modest amount of fuel under Chernobyl would cause a shock wave
capable of bringing the rest of the nuclear material into a
there were three other reactors at Chernobyl with each containing
195 tons of highly-energized nuclear fuel!
The low enrichment ratio of fissile material within the cores
is compensated by the cores’ mass. The fission of even
a tiny percentage of a core would represent an immense amount
of energy release.
The relative lack of explosive energy is compensated by the
amount of radioactive material at the site. Anything other than
the most modest excursion would be exceptionally destructive
due to radioactive fallout..." 2011-10-11The
chernobylproject.blogspot.com, by a Swedish blogger
previous post, entitled When the devil gets old deals
with the former director of the ChNPP, Viktor Bryukhanovs contemplations
and views on the disaster over 20 years after it happened. Especially
this year, 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the now 75
years old Bryukhanov has been giving several interviews for
Ukrainian media, trying to once again tell the story of what
according to him really happened on that Chernobyl morning in
has been trying to tell it all before. 10:00 am, on the 13th
of August 1986 Bryukhanov stood before Ukraine's director of
public prosecution answering questions until 13:00 that afternoon.
After that the prosecutor went to lunch and upon his return
he announced that Bryukhanov was under arrest. Bryukhanov had
asked why and received the answer "It's better for you"
after which he was taken into custody by the KGB to wait for
trial was supposed to be held on the 24th of March 1987 but
was postponed due to the also arrested chief engineer
Nikolai Fomin's suicide attempt. In his cell, Fomin had broken
his glasses and cut his wrists but his attempt to take his own
life was discovered and his life was saved.
the trial began on the 7th of July that year, inside an improvised
courtroom in the Chernobyl House of Culture, where Viktor Bryukhanov
along with five other men would be held accountable for their
actions at the 4th block during the critical hours. These were Nikolai
Fomin; his deputy Anatoly Dyatlov; the shift chief Boris Rogozhkin;
senior engineer Yuri Laushkin and overall reactor chief Aleksandr
Kovalenko were charged with accusations of various levels of
negligence and misconduct. The trial would proceed for three
the final day of the trial, Fomin showed obvious signs of great
stress, but after a 90 minutes session he, Viktor Bryukhanov
and Anatoly Dyatlov would receive their sentences, each receiving
(as been mentioned here before) 10 years of imprisonment in
labour camp for gross violation of safety regulations that created
the conditions that led to the explosion of the 4th reactor,
or rather "serious errors and shortcomings in the work
that lead to the accident with severe consequences". The
three accepted professional responsibility of the accident but
denied criminal liability.
Kovalenko, Boris Rogozhkin and Yuri Laushkin pleaded not guilty,
but the six were convicted on all charges except Mr. Fomin,
who had also been charged with abuse of power. Kovalenko was
sentenced to three years in labour camp for safety regulations;
Rogozhkin was convicted to five years for the same reasons and
Laushkin received two years for negligence and unfaithful execution
interviewed after the trial, the judge said - based on witness'
confessions - that there was also an atmosphere of "lack
of control and lack of responsibility" on the plant - the
workers were playing cards and writing letters on the night
of the accident.
already know that Viktor Bryukhanov and Anatoly Dyatlov were
released early due to bad health, but neither did Nikolai Fomin
serve his full time at the labour camp: In 1988, the former
chief engineer was transferred to a neuropsychiatric hospital
for prisoners. Two years later he was declared insane and thus
released early, being transferred to a civilian psychiatric
recovery, Fomin was employed at the Kalinin nuclear power plant
and five years later he retired. Nikolai Fomin does not like
to speak about the 25 years old disaster but states that:
was largely blamed. Don't believe everything that is said about
me. I only blame myself for one thing: I always thought that
the most important of all was the enterprise - the technology
but it turned out that I underestimated the most important thing
- the value of people." 2011-09-27When
the Devil Gets Old..., The Chernobyl Project blog,
by Swedish blogger
Anatoly Dyatlov, Viktor Petrovich Bryukanov - the former director
of the Chernobyl NPP was persecuted and convicted due to actions
and decisions made during the preceding hours as well as the
critical period of the disaster. On the 3rd of July in
1986, the Politburo decided to sentence Bryukhanov to 10 years
of imprisonment for "serious errors and shortcomings in
the work that lead to the accident with severe consequences."
Bryukhanov was also expelled from the communist party as to
further underline the degree of seriousness. This as an alternative
to the threatening death sentence.
received large doses of radiation (approximately 250 REM), Viktor
Bryukhanov was suffering from radiation sickness and due to
bad health, he was released in 1991, having served five years
of his sentence. While Anatoly Dyatlov consistently blamed the
accident on the reactors, Bryukhanov never doubted the safety
of the reactors and Soviet Nuclear Power Plants, and would keep
on insisting that the plant remained open, even 14 years after
the disaster [The last of the ChNPP reactors were taken out
of operation in 2000].
1992, Bryukhanov was, ironically enough, hired as a consultant
by the Ukrainian energy company Ukrinterenergo where he appears
to have remained until retirement.
at the age of 75, Viktor Bryukhanov [who along with with
Anatoly Dyatlov, Aleksandr Akimov and Leonid Toptunov remains
one of the four most rumored Chernobyl scapegoats] still claims
that there was nothing wrong with the reactors - the error according
to Bryukhanov was simply in the forth block. However he does
no longer believe that the personnel at the 4th reactor
block was responsible for what happened on the morning
of the 26th of April 1986. Instead, in an interview with the
Kiev Weekly [April 2011] he praises the courage of the employees
by the following words:
were no cowards or dodgers. All were dedicated to the plant,
loved it and defended it. Moreover, they knew how to conduct
themselves and where not to go... Of course, there were heroic
moments. I recall how the assistant manager of the electrical
workshop Oleksandr Lelechenko, understanding it was dangerous
to leave the hydrogen generator, performed the necessary work
to displace it and spent long hours in conditions of high levels
of radiation. As a result, he took in a huge dose of radiation
and ended up dying in a hospital in Moscow."
Bryukhanov's original points of view haven't changed much over
the years but he carefully avoids making definite statements,
but still claims that the real truth about Chernobyl will never
be learnt because "they are still concealing it" and
he doesn't believe that the disaster has taught anyone anything. 2011-09-15Valery
Alekseevich Legasov: About the Disaster at the Chernobyl NPP,
The Chernobyl Project blogspot, by a Swedish blogger
A. Legasov, born in 1936, became an academic at the age of 36.
At the time of the Chernobyl accident, he was the chairman of
the Department of Chemical Technology at the Chemistry Department
of Moscow State University. Legasov was the man sent to the
Chernobyl NPP to aid, try to gain control over the problem and
to investigate the disaster; what caused it, what the consequences
could be and how it at all could happen.
may seem funny that a professor in chemistry was sent to the
site of a nuclear disaster, but the truth is that Legasov was
the only man present in Moscow at the time who was at all qualified
to attend the emergency. Legasov, by his wife being referred
to as a strong and honest individual who wasn't afraid to speak
his mind was the very person insisting on the evacuation of
Pripyat, and obviously his voice was heard in this matter. Apparently
this was not the case concerning some following issues - The
Soviet regime allegedly forbade him to speak the truth, during
the IAEA conference in Vienna (August 1986, where of course
also Hans Blix attended), concerning the RBMK reactors and previous
accidents and problems with said reactors throughout the Soviet
the immediate threats of the ChNPP's 4th reactor had settled
and the Sarcophagus was built, Legasov would experience that
his career had been damaged due to the being forced to hide
the truth. For this he'd try to make up by writing several papers
which were either censored nor not at all published. Eventually,
the sense of failure became overwhelming for Valery Legasov,
who committed suicide in 1988. On April 26th, the 2nd
anniversary of the disaster, Legasov's hanged body was found
by his son returning from school. By then Legasov had been dead
for approximately four hours. Valery Legasov became 51 years
suicide of Legasov wasn't mentioned in any Soviet media.
Dyatlov, the vice deputy chief engineer at the ChNPP, in charge
of the experiment at reactor block 4 at the morning of the accident,
was (as I've mentioned before) persecuted and sent to prison
for criminal mismanagement of potentially explosive enterprises.
This man wrote a book entitled "Chernobyl - As it was",
where he told the story from his own point of view, blaming
the construction of the RBMK reactors for what had happened.
Dyatlov also wrote a letter to Hans Blix where he tried to explain
the cause of the disaster, but not much more is currently know
about this letter.
Legasov didn't write any books, but (supposedly) the hours before
his death, he made voice recordings covering five cassettes
where he told about the Chernobyl affair. These tapes were found
and eventually transcripted to written text. Some time ago,
I found these documents. In spite of a long habit concerning
the modern technology involving computers and so on, I still
am not comfortable with reading from a screen so today I printed
the 123 pages of Legasov's text set recordings. Leaving the
copying service office, I started looking over the papers and
found that it's actually understandable to me. I think that
it will be possible for me to translate this. I am going to
give it a try. As a matter of fact, I will start right away.
lava hitting pool of underground water at Chernobyl could have
caused 2nd explosion like a “gigantic atomic bomb”
— Major city 320 km away would have been destroyed (VIDEO)
by ENENews The
Battle of Chernobyl, 2006:
3:15 in; 2nd Chernobyl explosion “would have wiped out
half of Europe” – Governments kept secret for decades
32:55 in; Minsk, 320 km away, would have been razed and Europe
uninhabitable. 2011-04-25 Fukushima
in the Spotlight As Chernobyl Tragedy Turns 25 (RT
Video), uploaded April 25, 2011. [Ed. Note:
I have added the boldface below].
RT Narrator: [at 22 seconds in]...There
have been reports, not widely covered by the media, that one
of the explosions at Fukushima was not actually a gas blast,
as originally thought, but a nuclear reaction in one of the
reactor vessels. Now surely if that was the case, the plant's
operator TEPCO, they wouldn't conceal such a catastrophic
development, would they? Dr. Chris Busby: I think it is possible that
they would conceal this development. The nuclear industry
has a history of duplicity and cover-up wherever you look.
They will always try and shift the information in some way
that makes them come out on top. I believe actually it probably
was a nuclear explosion, but not in the reactor, but in the
tanks that contain the spent fuel. I think that seems to be
almost certain now, that there was some kind of nuclear explosion
in that tank. The one that contained the plutonium MOX fuel
rods. I mean, anyone who saw that on the video and who saw
that enormous explosion would not have believed it was a hydrogen
explosion. RT Narrator: Would would the consequences
be if that is the case, that it was indeed a nuclear explosion
and not hydrogen. Dr. Busby: Well, not a lot different, actually.
The problem is that the fuel rods, an enormous number of radioactive
fuel rods have blasted into the air and have vaporized, so
there is a great deal of radioactivity around there. And also
there has been a meltdown, and as we understand it, there
is still fissioning taking place, maybe there, but also maybe
also as a result of cracks in the vessels themselves. So we
have got fissioning taking place in those reactors. And I
believe there aoubt 10 to the 14th, that is one and 14 zeroes
of becquerels of radioactivity coming out every day. Now this
is a very serious matter. I have to
say that there is evidence that the Chernobyl nuclear accident
was also a nuclear explosion. We heard details a couple of
weeks ago in Berlin of isotopic measurements that were made
of Xenon isotopes that showed it was a nuclear explosion and
not a hydrogen explosion. So that also was
a nuclear explosion.
20 Years On,
h2g2.com [Ed. Note: This account seems to be fairly representative
of "official" or "establishment" explanations
of the cause of the "accident"]
RBMK Reactor The
RBMK5 design is unlike any other fission reactor, as it was
based on a design intended to produce plutonium for nuclear
weapons. The RBMK itself is also designed to manufacture plutonium,
albeit as a by-product of power generation. It is powered by
slightly enriched (2% U-235) uranium dioxide fuel pellets, stacked
into a 3.65m tube clad with zirconium-alloy. 18 fuel rods are
arranged cylindrically to form a fuel assembly, and two fuel
assemblies are stacked on top of each other and placed in their
own individual pressure tube, about 7m high. This arrangement
allows individual fuel assemblies to be removed separately,
thus enabling the reactor to be refueled while running. Graphite
(carbon) blocks between pressure tubes act as a moderator, and
211 boron carbide control rods - 179 of which can be inserted
or removed from above - control the reaction. Water is pumped
directly through each pressure tube and allowed to boil, driving
the turbine directly. Although there is no secondary cooling
circuit, there are two separate primary circuits with a further
back-up. The core is concrete-lined and topped with a steel
pile cap which also supports the fuel assemblies. There is no
secure containment building as such. The features that make
the RBMK unique, and flawed, are:
High availability due to ability to refuel without shutting
down the reactor.
The combination of graphite moderator and water coolant
is found in no other power reactors. This type of fuel would
be unsuitable for a water-moderated reactor.
Low power density, allowing the core to survive without
damage following loss of electrical power for up to an hour.
Lack of a proper containment building.
Inadequate accident mitigation and fire suppression systems,
poor separation and redundancy of safety and electrical systems,
complicated pipe work.
Positive void coefficient.
last feature is probably the most significant contributor to
the accident. In the event of coolant loss, water in the pressure
tubes turns to steam and steam pockets, or voids, are formed.
Steam is less dense than water and has less cooling power, so
the fuel gets hotter. However, where the water also provides
the moderating function, the neutrons will speed up due to the
lack of moderation and the reaction will slow down. This is
known as a negative void coefficient, and ensures that any uncontrolled
increase in core temperature will slow down and ultimately stop
the reaction. Most reactors are built this way and are thus
inherently 'safe.' Conversely, in the RBMK at lower power levels
(less than 20% of maximum) the graphite moderator allowed the
reaction to proceed in spite of the loss of coolant. The number
of free neutrons would increase, as there is no water to absorb
them. This positive void coefficient meant that an uncontrolled
temperature increase could, in the right circumstances, lead
to a runaway reaction. The
25 April, 1986, reactor four was to be shut down for routine
maintenance, so it was decided to take advantage of this to
run a test. Ironically, the test was designed to improve safety.
The reactor's cooling pumps relied on electrical power, so the
operators wanted to see how long the turbines could produce
sufficient energy to keep the pumps running in the event of
a loss of power. The reactor's emergency cooling system was
deliberately disabled, as they didn’t want it cutting
in when the main pumps slowed. To reduce cooling requirements,
the reactor was to be run at low power, despite the fact that
these reactors were known to be unstable at low power settings.
The test had been attempted on two previous occasions but never
were two main cooling systems excluding the back-up, each with
four main pumps. Four of these pumps were powered by the generator
that was to 'fail.' Prior to the experiment, with reactor power
reduced and all eight pumps operating, water flow exceeded permitted
levels. The amount of water in the steam-raising circuit reduced
steam production. Additionally, the extra water was absorbing
neutrons and causing power to fall. Power fell to less than
1% of capacity, so the operators manually removed control rods
to compensate, switched off automatic regulators and eventually
stabilised the reactor at the planned test power level. At one
point only six-eight control rods were being used. According
to procedure, at least 30 are required to maintain control,
and if there are any less the reactor should have been shut
down. They allowed the test to continue, despite knowing that
about 20 seconds would be required to lower all the rods and
shut down the reactor in the event of a power surge.
both generators were shut down to start the test. The cooling
pumps slowed, reducing water flow in the core and producing
more steam. The excess water had up until then been absorbing
neutrons, so the formation of steam pockets caused neutron flux
to increase (the positive void coefficient). At 01:23 hours
on 26 April, reactor power increased exponentially, up to an
estimated 100 times nominal. The control rods could not be re-inserted
in time; the fuel overheated and some of the rods ruptured.
resulting explosion, thought to be caused mainly by steam pressure
and chemical reaction with the exposed fuel, blew the 1000-tonne
lid clear of the core. A second explosion threw out fragments
of burning fuel and graphite from the core and allowed air to
rush in, causing the graphite moderator to burst into flames.
The exact cause of the second explosion remains unknown, but
it is thought that hydrogen may have played a part. The
Immediate Aftermath With
the core now fully exposed, a plume of smoke, radioactive fission
products and debris rose up to about 1km into the air...
it may be obvious to most, it must also be pointed out that
at no time was there a risk of a nuclear explosion. The spectre
of a reactor accident leading to an explosion is one of the
more disturbing and pointless Hollywood myths10. Reactor fuel
is enriched to only 2% - 5% pure uranium; weapons grade uranium
is enriched to levels as high as 90%. Reactor fuel is simply
not explosive...[Ed. Note: This is contradicted by Russian leaders
portrayed in the Battle of Chernobyl documentary:
were afraid, because it could have caused another explosion.
it was terrifying. Scientists came and took readings. They
were very worried. They were afraid the critical temperature
would be reached and it would set off a second explosion that
would have been a terrible tragedy,” Gen. Nikolai Antochkin
USSR Air Force.
cement slab below the reactor core is heating up and in danger
of cracking. The magma is threatening to seep through. The
water the firemen poured during the first hours of the disaster
has pooled below the slab. If the radioactive magma makes
contact with the water it could set off a second explosion
even more devastating than the first.
country’s top experts are called into action. Vassili
Nesterenko was one of them, At the time, he was working on
improving the Soviet Union’s intercontinental nuclear
the heat managed to crack the cement slab only fourteen hundred
kilograms of uranium and graphite mixture would have needed
to hit the water to set off a new explosion.”
ensuing chain-reaction would set off an explosion comparable
to a gigantic atomic bomb.
experts studied the possibility and concluded that the explosion
would have had the force from three- to five megatons …”
said Nesterenko. The
Battle of Chernobyl @ 32’35
7 The Chernobyl accident — can it happen here? section
"The Chernobyl Accident — Blow-by-Blow"
Nuclear Energy Option by Professor Emeritus Bernard
L. Cohen University of Pittsburgh, Published by Plenum Press,
[For this year] Trial
at Chernobyl Disaster (PDF)by
Karpan N.V., [Editor's Note: I have added the boldface below.
The following preface raises an important point, namely that
we are greatly disadvantaged in piecing together what actually
happened until all witness testimonies at the trial proceedings
are released to the public, as well as investigation reports
created by police and security services].
town was chosen as a place for trial of people accused in Chernobyl
disaster because according to Soviet Law, which was in force
those days, the trial must be held close to the scene of crime.
The town is located 12 kilometers from the nuclear power plant,
so all of its citizens were evacuated at the beginning of the
May of 1986. It was no trouble to declare hearing of the case
public, whereas entrance to the zone was possible only through
the disaster this town was decontaminated on repeated occasions.
The center of the town was refurbished, new paint laid on renovated
paving and by the July of 1987 the administrative centre of
accident area was quite ready to hold demonstrative "Chernobyl
Cultural center chosen for trial was refurbished exemplarily.
The perfect view was spoiled only by grates hanged on windows
and a small courtyard annexed to the building in which a car
with defendants entered.
were guests at hearing — 60 people, soviet and foreign
journalists. Rest seats were occupied by Chernobyl NPP personnel,
30-km zone personnel and participants.
first trial session was set on the July 7, 1987. Only the first
and the last sessions were opened for journalists, so they could
hear an indictment (on the first day) and a verdict. Details
and circumstances of the disaster were discussed at work sessions,
access to which was restricted.
trial was held during 18 days, excluding days off. Sessions
began at 11 o'clock in the morning and ended at 19 o'clock.
During the sessions 40 witnesses, 9 complainants and 2 victims
were heard. Many people expected that records of court
would become public so everyone who wanted to know the truth
about the disaster would be given this opportunity. But the
press and television supplied the community only with short
messages about hot weather in Chernobyl and progress in battle
for harvest. In this way one more informational gap
was created in a judicial part of history of the Chernobyl disaster.
days I was on my duty at the Chernobyl NPP so I missed some
of the sessions. That is why not all of the sessions were recorded
and included in my report.
and Mainstream Media (MSM) Questionable Behavior Patterns
Chernobyl During the Soviet Era
tragedy: the last "gift" from the Soviet regime
by Dmitry Konchalovsky, english.ruvr.ru (h/t Russian
Gov’t Radio: “The number of victims has reached
one million people today” — Consequences of Chernobyl
meltdown are endless and uncontrollable, April
26 years ago there was an explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear
power plant. Whole regions in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus have
become unfit for life, and the number of victims has reached
one million people today. And experts are still disputing about
long-term consequences of the disaster.
the seventy years of its existence the Soviet regime "presented"
the rest of the mankind with a lot of problems namely the spread
of the "red plague" throughout the world, including
China, Vietnam and some countries of Africa and Latin America;
and occupation of half of Europe alongside with planting socialist
principles on these territories with the help of bayonets and
tanks; and the invasion of Afghanistan for the purpose of promoting
its "dogma" in the southern direction.
these movements have cost the world enormous human, financial
and moral losses.
yet all these "gifts" were of an archaic nature, as
if from the depths of centuries, when the defeat of an enemy
was achieved through the seizure of his territory, or through
the victory of your ideology (or religion). Therefore, the consequences
of such actions were, first of all, finite, and, secondly, reparable.
Meanwhile the Chernobyl catastrophe is an event of a different
kind, if we regard it as a "gift" to the mankind from
a decrepit regime.
of all, two seemingly incompatible factors have joined each
other: scientific-technical progress and intellectual helplessness.
That is, the Chernobyl NPP (like dozens of others) was successfully
built, but its safe operation turned out to be a daunting task
for the sluggish Soviet bureaucratic system.
it turned out that the habit of classifying the whole lot as
secret for the sake of the country’s prestige can cause
irreparable damage even without malicious intent.
would like to remind you that the Soviet party leadership was
concealing the information about the explosion throughout the
whole week. As a result tens of thousands of unsuspecting people
came out on May-Day demonstrations in Kiev, Minsk, Bryansk,
and many other cities, exposing themselves to the risk of getting
a serious dose of radiation.
the absence of truthful information vague rumors caused an unprecedented
panic; salt and matches were sold out in a flash, and the South-Western
direction railway line came in a state of collapse because of
the enormous number of refugees.
finally, the third distinguishing feature of the last "gift"
of the Soviet regime is the fact that its consequences are endless
and uncontrollable, and it is impossible to count the exact
number of victims. Scientists are still arguing if the number
of one million deaths is valid, but when such big numbers are
taken into account, the one thing is absolutely clear - things
are in a bad way. Besides, no one can count how many babies
could not be born, and on the lives of how many subsequent generations
this disaster will tell in the form of cancer.
is also worth mentioning that, if on April 26, 26 years ago
the wind in the Chernobyl area was a little stronger, then,
depending on its direction, today either Moscow, or Scandinavia,
or the Western Europe would be a desert... 2012-04-08Chernobyl
disaster gave football star Stiliyan Petrov cancer, claims Bulgarian
doctor by Ian Garland, dailymail.co.uk
Petrov grew up 650 miles from doomed power station
Toxic cloud passed over his hometown
Communist leaders in Bulgaria 'hid threat to kids'
Villa captain Stiliyan Petrov's cancer was caused by radiation
from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster more than 25 years ago,
according to his national team's doctor.
32-year-old was diagnosed with acute leukaemia last month.
Mihail Iliev, who has treated Petrov for 14 years in his capacity
as Bulgarian national team medic, is blaming a toxic radiation
cloud the star was exposed to when he was just six years old...
Iliev, 61, claimed radiation levels in the north of Bulgaria
were 1,000 to 1,300 times normal levels in late April, early
said a number of youngsters at the time, or born in the aftermath
of the disaster, developed cancer - because Bulgaria's communist
regime failed to tell people about the threat.
Iliev told The Sun 'It was in the late spring, the
population was eating fresh radioactive vegetables and other
foods. Many people who were kids back then suffered cancer because
Iliev is even more convinced Petrov's cancer is related, because
there is no history of cancer in his family.
Iliev added, 'There are no other cases of such illness in this
family, that is why I think Stiliyan is a victim of the old
communist regime’s lack of information when the nuclear
reactor at Chernobyl exploded, and the radioactive cloud came
to our country.'... 2012-03-22The
Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators, agreenroad.blogspot.com.
the YouTube Movie, 'The Sacrifice' -- by Emanuela Andreoli and
Wladimir Tchertkoff. It was made in Switzerland, 2003, and is
26 minutes long.
documentary was awarded by the Île-de-France council as
being the Best Scientific And Environment Documentary in November
2004. It also was called the best Documentary at Festival of
Scientific Movies of Oullins, in France.
movie is made by and for the liquidators that worked on cleaning
up and covering the Chernobyl Reactor after it exploded and
MILLION people were pressed into service to clean up the mess.
Then these liquidators were largely forgotten and ignored. Radiation
exposures were either not taken, minimized or lost. The whole
mess was called 'Top Secret' so that everything involved could
be covered up, denied or minimized.
is the same pattern that seems to emerge after 2,400 nuclear
bomb tests, as well as all other nuclear accidents whether civilian
or military. Fukushima is no exception to this rule. 2012-02-16READERS
IN COUNCIL: Health threat from cesium-137 by Steven
Starr, Senior Scientist, Physicians for Social Responsibility,
University of Missouri, japantimes.co.jp; h/t Senior
Scientist: Irreversible heart damage for children with 50 Bq/kg
of Cs-137, enenews, 15 April 2012
the Feb. 14 article reprinted from Sentaku magazine, "Put
children before politics": Thank you for endorsing this
idea. I would like to comment on one aspect of the article regarding
cesium-137, which makes up 40 percent of the long-lived radionuclides
created by nuclear power plants.
cesium-137 has a 30-year half-life, the land seriously contaminated
by the Fukushima disaster will remain dangerously radioactive
for up to 300 years. There is a great deal of experience with
cesium-137 in the seriously contaminated regions of Belarus
and Ukraine. Once radioactive cesium makes its way into the
soils, it will bioconcentrate and biomagnify in foodstuffs,
particularly mushrooms, berries and wild game.
grown in these regions is contaminated with cesium-137, and
sadly most of the children living there who eat this food have
become unhealthy. The Belrad Institute, after nine years of
research and hundreds of autopsies, found that cesium-137 concentrates
in the vital organs, particularly the heart and endocrine system.
Professor Yuri Bandazhevsky discovered that children contaminated
with cesium-137 that produced 50 atomic disintegrations per
second (becquerels) per kilogram of body weight caused irreversible
heart damage in a child.
the Belarusian government did not want his work accepted or
known, he was put into prison.
is Gorbachev to you? On Mikhail Gorbachev's 80th birthday,
leading Russians give their opinion of the Soviet Union's first
and last president, Vlast magazine, rbth.ru
[Ed. Note: Gorbachev was the official head of the Soviet Union
during Chernobyl. In trying to assess Gorbachev myself, I am
reminded of my favorite saying from Socrates "If I know
anything, it is that I know nothing." I have been left
with a subliminal impression from mainstream media (not worth
much) that he helped reduce tensions and navigate the Russia
through the very difficult transition away from communism towards
"capitalism" (actually "kleptocracy" by
Rothschild-backed oligarchs in the 1990s), but there are still
too many unanswered questions to judge his real character. For
example, if Chernobyl was a false flag run by Mossad-CIA-MI6,
what involvement might he have had with them? What kind of involvement
might he have had with the Zionists kleptocrats? The diverse
viewpoints presented in this article probably contain some good
leads to help find the truth.] 2006-08-20Chernobyl:
20 years after, russianamericanbusiness.org
CPSU Central Committee documents The
causes for the Chernobyl accident are not entirely understood,
as even the court proceedings against the allegedly guilty soon
turned into a farce that was designed to hide the truth. The
government tried to conceal the truth from the first day of
the tragedy. On Labor Day May 1, 1986, the citizens of Kiev
marched through the city with large socialist banners, holding
their children in their hands. The people walked, danced, and
shouted communist slogans as the winds carried radiation to
the city. In Kiev, radiation levels rose from 50 micro roentgens
per hour to 30 thousand.
was not until several days later that all official establishments
in the city received instructions to keep their doors and windows
tightly closed at all times and to wash the floor every hour.
Even these simple measures offered considerable protection against
were only speculations – no one knew anything. In those
first days after the accident, I aged 10 years,” complains
Vasiliy Gorbetskiy, a driver of the Chernobyl transportation
union, who helped in the rescue work. “We decided to remain
here and respond to the disaster. We should not be lied to.”
most intensive radiation contamination took place in the first
15 days. Mikhail Gorbachev did not address the country with
the news of the Chernobyl explosion until May 13. In his speech,
Gorbachev essentially recognized the country’s impotence
in helping people.
the Soviet Union, we were always preparing to defend our motherland.
We were always preparing for a nuclear war,” afflicted
the nuclear reactor blew, civil defense preparation proved futile.
Dosimeters were not working. There were no potassium iodine
pills. Special army detachments for preventing large-scale contamination
were formed only after the catastrophe.
concealed the truth.
partially concealed the truth about reactor construction deficiencies
that lead to the most horrifying nuclear accident in the world.
Former director of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant Victor
Bruhanov talked about that recently.
who was incarcerated for negligence after the accident, did
his recent interview at a time when nuclear power is gaining
popularity around the world. Unlike the fossil fuels, nuclear
power allows to produce electricity without emitting carbon
his interview that appeared in a Russian publication Profile
around the 20th anniversary of Chernobyl, Bruhanov said that
it is important to understand the causes of the catastrophe
in order to decide how to develop alternative energy sources.
Bruhanov regrets that Chernobyl’s lesson is still not
understood in that regard.
no. 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded during a
test on April 26, 1986. Many scientists agree that the accident
was the result of fateful circumstances, the combination of
problematic reactor design and the neglectfulness of the personnel
in adhering to safety rules.
recognizes that his subordinates made mistakes. In his view,
however, the investigation fell short of revealing the true
causes of the disaster in order to save the atomic power industry.
Reactors with similar construction models as the one in Chernobyl
operate in Eastern Europe to this day. They were somewhat modernized
after the accident.
is convinced that not only the Russian government hides the
truth about the risks associated with nuclear power. The Americans,
the French, the English, and the Japanese do the same, he believes.
the time of the explosion, Bruhanov was at home, not far away
from the power plant. After serving 5 years of his 10-year-jail
term, Bruhanov was released. He now lives in Kiev... 2006-05-10Reflections
of a Chernobyl liquidator – the way it was and the way
it will be by Charles Digges, bellona.org "When
the fourth reactor block at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
(NPP) exploded in April of 1986, Sergii Mirnyi was a 27-year-old
chemist and was one of the hundreds of thousands of scientists,
soldiers and even ordinary citizens summoned to the site to
help quell what remained of the world’s worst nuclear
the time Chernobyl’s fourth reactor blew up, releasing
a radioactive cloud over Eastern Europe that reached as far
as Scandinavia, Mirnyi was coming up on a vacation and preparing
for the relaxation and revelry of the May 1st holidays.
as a Soviet Army reserve officer – like his colleagues
at Kharkov universities and institutes – he was called
to Chernobyl when the explosion occurred. But the order was
taken with a grain of salt. Knowing little of what to expect
when they got there, the mobilised officers and soldiers brought
the air of the May 1st celebrations with them. ‘Even
the pros didn’t know what to do’
when they arrived did they begin to comprehend what all the
commotion was about.
we professionals didn’t know what to do after the explosion
and could not understand its ramifications,” Mirnyi said.
“Here we were, experts in our fields and in radiation,
and we didn’t know where to begin or even recognise the
scale of the disaster.”
former Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev recently acknowledged,
even the top decision-makers in the USSR “could not make
sense of what happened at the Chernobyl NPP”...
of disaster slowly becomes apparent
government mouthpiece newspaper Pravda had devoted four centimetres
of column space to a vague notification about the explosion,
and it was actually Sergii's mother who was the first one to
connect the two-sentence piece of information about an explosion
at some nuclear power plant in Chernobyl with the unexpected
mobilization of Sergii and his fellow reserve officers, who
were all low-ranking commanders in radiation and chemical surveillance
the way it went in those days with any kind of industrial, nuclear
or other kinds of disaster,” said Mirnyi. “A plane
would crash killing everyone, and Pravda would print a sentence
about it and that is all you ever heard.”
reinforcements were summoned. They lived in tent camps - some
of which were several thousand men strong - that were located
all over the 30-kilometer zone that surrounded the area affected
by the exploded reactor. Each day, the liquidators would line
up in front of the plant by the thousands to wait for work assignments.
liquidators would wait several hours before being handed a task
for the day, if they got one at all, said Mirnyi.
government over-flowed the number of liquidators into the zone,"
Politburo, meanwhile, was doing its best to keep a tight lid
on what had happened, denying Scandinavian reports of rising
radiation levels... 1986-07
[For this time period] Trial
at Chernobyl Disaster (PDF)by Karpan N.V., Kiev, 2001 [Editor's Note: I have added
the boldface below]
town was chosen as a place for trial of people accused in Chernobyl
disaster because according to Soviet Law, which was in force
those days, the trial must be held close to the scene of crime.
The town is located 12 kilometers from the nuclear power plant,
so all of its citizens were evacuated at the beginning of the
May of 1986. It was no trouble to declare hearing of the case
public, whereas entrance to the zone was possible only through
the disaster this town was decontaminated on repeated occasions.
The center of the town was refurbished, new paint laid on renovated
paving and by the July of 1987 the administrative centre of
accident area was quite ready to hold demonstrative "Chernobyl
were guests at hearing — 60 people, soviet and foreign
journalists. Rest seats were occupied by Chernobyl NPP personnel,
30-km zone personnel and participants.
first trial session was set on the July 7, 1987. Only the first
and the last sessions were opened for journalists, so they could
hear an indictment (on the first day) and a verdict. Details
and circumstances of the disaster were discussed at work sessions,
access to which was restricted.
trial was held during 18 days, excluding days off. Sessions
began at 11 o'clock in the morning and ended at 19 o'clock.
During the sessions 40 witnesses, 9 complainants and 2 victims
were heard. Many people expected that records of court
would become public so everyone who wanted to know the truth
about the disaster would be given this opportunity. But the
press and television supplied the community only with short
messages about hot weather in Chernobyl and progress in battle
for harvest. In this way one more informational gap
was created in a judicial part of history of the Chernobyl disaster.
Era Eastern European Questionable
Animal Studies Show Radiation Is Still Harming Our Wild Companions,
seems that many countries, including the Russians, are not interested
in knowing radiation levels in animals. They also do not seem
to be interested in knowing what effects low level radiation
has on animals, insects and birds in areas such as the 'exclusion
zones' around Chernobyl. It seems that the only studies being
done around Chernobyl have been performed by 'foreign' researchers
coming in from other countries. This is curious in and of itself.
Why does the media seem to be promoting the Chernobyl exclusion
zone as a 'Nature Reserve', full of a rebounding population
of apparently 'happy and healthy' animals? Why are they not
disclosing that these animals all have high levels of toxic
radiation inside of them?
are there no studies around these larger animals? Why are there
no radiation measuring studies exploring what types of radiation
are in these LARGE animals? What effect is the radiation having
on their health?
Reclaimed: An Animal Takeover (1 of 5) (9:58) June
movie above shows lots of healthy and happy animals, thus giving
the impression that radiation is healthy both for animals and
humans. However; "a three-year consensus on wildlife found
a reduction in biodiversity and significant effects of contamination,
including migratory birds with tumors on their feet, necks and
around their eyes." http://www.greenfudge.org/2010/08/03/study-shows-chernobyl-animals-still-suffer-from-radiation/
News – Chernobyl Radiation Still Harming Animals
to Discovery News, "the Chernobyl disaster, a nuclear reactor
explosion and subsequent fire on April 26, 1986, which spewed
highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere, continues to
harm animal populations in the Ukraine, according to a new study.
The study, published in the latest Royal Society Biology Letters,
presents the most extensive data set ever compiled on the abundance
of animals at and around the Chernobyl site. "Abundance"
is relative in this case, however, since scientists Anders Moller
and Timothy Mousseau determined that insect, bird and other
animal populations have dramatically diminished there in the
two decades following the disaster." http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/03/18/chernobyl-animals.html
– Chernobyl animals worse affected than thought: study
were amazed to see that there had been no studies on this subject,"
Anders Moller, a researcher at the National Center for Scientific
Research in France, who led the study, said in telephone interview....Radiation
has affected animals living near the site of Ukraine's Chernobyl
nuclear disaster far more than was previously thought, a study
showed Wednesday, challenging beliefs that local wildlife was
on the rebound...."We wanted to ask the question: Are there
more or fewer animals in the contaminated areas? Clearly there
were fewer," said Moller, who has worked on Chernobyl since
Chernobyl accident happened in 1986, but the researchers studying
the area around Chernobyl found that the numbers of insects,
such as bumble bees, spiders grasshoppers and other animals
were lower in the radiation soaked areas, when compared to other
areas without such radiation contamination.
highly radioactive 'hot spot' areas were completely depleted
of animal life, while other areas that were not so severely
affected. Comparing the two types of areas and the number of
living specimens showed results of less than 1 specimen per
square yard in 'hot' areas, compared to 100 per square yard
in less radioactive areas.
same dynamic applies to all species of animals. They also noticed
that animals had a high percentage of stunted limbs and discoloration
compared to non radiated animal populations.
the one hand, large animals seem to be moving back into the
area because humans are totally excluded from it, but NO studies
seem to have been done on these larger animals, to see what
their true state of health is. No one seems to be measuring
the radiation in the larger fish and mammals in the region..
Either that, or they ARE measuring the radiation and do not
report it, for fear of causing a panic.
fallout from Chernobyl covered many thousands of square miles
and contaminated areas as far away as Germany, the UK, Russia,
Scotland, Ukraine, Belarus and more. Few or no animal or human
low level radiation effect studies seem to have been done around
insects, birds, animals or fish in those countries either.
in a few countries such as the UK and Germany, laws were implemented
limiting the sale or consumption of animals that contained high
levels of Cesium. The UK just dropped all of their efforts to
prevent contaminated meat from reaching the market after doing
a short survey to see if there was interest in continuing the
program. At last count, some percentage of sheep were registering
radioactive Cesium in the neighborhood of 1,000 Bq per kilogram
is approximately 1,000 miles from Chernobyl, but they are still
finding that 20% to 80% of the animals measured are contaminated
with radioactive Cesium 137, making them unfit to eat due to
high radiation levels.
is still actively measuring radiation in such animals as wild
pigs or deer brought in by hunters and compensating hunters
for the loss of radiation contaminated animals.
also does not seem to be any international agreement or standard
about what is considered a 'safe' amount of radiation in wild
game, or retail food and drinking water. In Germany, unsafe
radiation is considered to be any Cesium found at 600 Bq per
kilogram or more.
the UK the level of unsafe radiation is almost double that amount;
at 1,000 Bq per kilogram Cesium 137. Until February of 2012,
they authorities were testing all sheep and other animals consumed
for their meat or exported out of 'control areas' found to have
elevated Cesium levels due to Chernobyl.
that testing and contaminated meat exclusion program has recently
been dropped completely, so people in the UK can now eat radioactively
contaminated sheep or other meat, with no radiation measurement
or warning labels at all. This lack of testing also means that
this contaminated meat can be exported abroad.
average level of Cesium radiation found in meat before Chernobyl
was less than .5 Bq per kilogram of meat or fish. A total amount
of Cesium consumed by an average adult would total around 100
Bq PER YEAR from all plant, milk and animal sources. All of
this radiation originates from the nuclear bomb testing era.
Cesium does not exist 'naturally' and is totally a man made
radioactive substance. It seems that as levels of toxic radiation
rise in food, wild game and water that authorities just raise
the 'safe' limits and allow the food and drink to be sold. This
happened both in Japan and in many other countries.
problems with testing and measuring for radiation in food and
drink are huge. But it would seem to be common sense that selling
radioactive food or drink should be something that is either
banned or regulated internationally.
should be agreed upon international standards. The current hodgepodge
of conflicting, loose and missing regulations is not good for
our generation's health or for the future health of seven generations
it is impossible to decontaminate radioactive food, and very
difficult or expensive to decontaminate drinks/water, it would
seem that much more attention and study around this subject
would be prudent and wise, in all countries.
all, how hard is it to set up and measure the radiation in things
like deer antlers, or animal droppings, or the total body radiation
burden of children and adults?
antlers shed near Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
(2:25) July 30, 2011]
interesting example of the chemical behavior of fission products
is provided by a pair of deer antlers on the premises of the
former Ivankov Fish Combine, about one mile from the Chernobyl
Nuclear Power Plant.
we place a sodium iodide (NaI:Tl) scintillation detector near
the antlers. It registers no discernable activity above local
background (although it should be noted that background near
ChNPP is somewhat elevated). The NaI:Tl detector is predominately
sensitive to gamma rays.
we swap out the scintillator for a Geiger-Muller tube having
a window that admits beta particles. The Geiger tube is an American-made
CDV-700 probe. It is very sensitive to beta particles and much
less sensitive to gamma rays. The antlers register many times
local background on the Geiger tube, although they appeared
unremarkable on the scintillator.
submit that the explanation for this effect is the preferential
concentration of strontium-90 (Sr-90), a pure beta emitter,
in the bone of the antlers.
chemical behavior resembles that of the calcium that largely
comprises hard bone, and so it is absorbed and retained strongly
in bone (i.e. it is a "bone seeker")." Source:
from video description: Chernobyl; Animal Studies Show Radiation
Is Still Harming Our Wild Companions; via A Green Road
Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/chernobyl-radioactive-deer-antlers.html 2006-04-23Truth
still radioactive 20 years after Chernobyl by Mike
Sigov, toledoblade.com. 2005Meet
Galina Bandazhevskaya, Pediatrician, Minsk, Belarus
[wife of Professor Yury Bandashevky and medical doctor] by Mads
Ekesen, Chernobyl: 20 Years, 20 Lives.
into the 1990s they observed an alarming number of children
with heart problems and a dramatic increase in the number of
congenital heart disorders. Often children as young as six had
arrhythmia. Therefore they began to keep statistics on their
patients and discovered that there were 2½ times as many
cases of heart disorders in children after Chernobyl as there
had been before the disaster. When one is the first to research
a subject there will always be much uncertainty connected with
the results. Yury would have to do controlled research for many
years in order to conclude that it was the radioactivity that
was the single reason for the increased number of heart disorders..."
"Professor Yury Bandazhevsky
was put in jail for revealing information about
Prison by Rashid Alimov, bellona.no
European Union, or EU, representatives, who are part of the
EU's Minsk diplomatic mission, are visiting regions of Gomel
and Mogilev — the Belarusian districts most severely contaminated
by the 1986 Chernobyl explosion — from May 21 to 23, Bandazhevsky,
the founder and chancellor of the Gomel State Medical Institute
published in 1999 the results of years worth of research on
the clinical consequences of cesium-137 — one of the most
radioactive elements released by the disaster — impacts
on human organism. His results showed that it leads to heart
disease, cataract, early ageing and other maladies.
his research jeopardized the Belarusian authorities' intention
to recommence farming lands contaminated by Chernobyl. Just
before his arrest in 1999, Bandazhevsky had harshly criticized
official researches, sponsored by the Belarusian government,
which allocated only 1bn roubles for `scientifically and practically
useful research,' and said the remaining scientific budget of
17bn was wasted. Bandazhevsky also argued that Belarus was engaged
in a hidden scam of selling and exporting radioactive vegetables
along with non-contaminated products — a practice he viewed
as sheer folly. Bandazhevsky's
and his wife Galina examined cardiograms of children and carried
out series of autopsies in the forensic morgue in Gomel. The
scientific results proved that, after the Chernobyl accident,
cardiovascular system sickness rate increased by four times.
to Bandazhevsky studies, increases of cesium-137 concentrations
from 10 to 30 times in vital human organs were considered insignificant.
He proved, however, that such concentrations lead to pathological
abnormalities. For instance, a pathology can be seen when cesium
is accumulated in a human organism at the rate of only 30-50
Bq/kg. Autopsies of one-year-old children in Gomel showed high
levels of radiocesium in their organs — up to 6000 Bq/kg,
which indicates a severe radioactive toxic syndrome, both among
foetuses and newborn babies..."
10m total population, Belarus's approximately 2m people, including
500 thousand children, live on land contaminated by Chernobyl,
which made more than 25 percent of Belarus's forest and farming
areas radioactive. Official data say about 1.2m hectares of
land that is still used for farming purposes is contaminated
with cesium-137 at the rate of 37 kBq/m2.
Bandazhevsky's opinion, the contamination is widening —
cesium and other isotopes are spread by forest fires and dust.
Different forecasts predict a peak of various diseases caused
by Chernobyl between 2005 and 2010. Bandazhevsky's
was arrested soon after his report was published under a presidential
decree N21 ?On Urgent Measures for the Combat of Terrorism,'"
Bandazhevsky's lawyer Garry Pogonyaylo, who is also co-chairman
of the Belarusian Helsinki Committee, told Bellona Web.
a month nobody knew, where he was, until we found him at a detention
centre in Mogilev, 140 kilometres from his home in Gomel,"
Mogilev, Bandazhevsky was put under tremendous psychological
pressure: He was questioned at night, made to sleep on the cold
floor of a detention cell, wrapping himself with newspapers
for some warmth. On the 23rd day of this systematic humiliation,
Bandazhevsky, whose lawyer hadn't been permitted by authorities
to see him, was charged, not with terrorism, but rather with
taking bribes from students that were seeking admission to the
his Gomel State Medical Institute.
doesn't relate to the decree N21, under which Bandazhevsky was
arrested. That shows again, how groundless and illegal Belarusian
authorities may act," said Pogonyaylo.
Bandazhevsky had no relation to the army, his case was thrown
to the Military Courts because one of the people accused with
Bandazhevsky was a military reservist. The court sentenced Bandazhevsky
to eight years in prison. The independent experts present at
the court case registered eight violations of the Belarusian
Procedural Criminal Code, and the main witness for the prosecution
recanted his testimony. In spite of that, Bandazhevsky has been
serving a hard labour sentence since June, 2001.
think, Bandazhevsky's conviction was organized by Lukashenka's
government in order to eliminate a researcher whose results
harshly conflicted with governmental policies, ignoring the
real harm of Chernobyl," Belarusian Helsinki Committee
representatives said in a telephone interview. Other
Pressures at the Belrad Institute
conviction isn't the only attempt by Belarusian authorities
to silence an alternative view on Chernobyl's consequences.
Health ministry pressure to close the non-governmental radioactive
safety Belrad Institute in Minsk continues to this day.
Bandazhevsky, the researchers of Belrad, under the direction
of nuclear physicist Vasily Nesterenko, argue that authorities
underestimate radiation doses Belarusian citizens are currently
subjected to, especially children. The institute carries out
monitoring of contaminated areas and works hard to produce pectin-based
medication for the eradication of cesium from children's bodies...
and Canadian Government and Mainstream
Media (MSM) Questionable Behavior Patterns
with a Skew: The Nuclear Power Industry After Chernobyl and
Fukushimaby Gayle Greene
is one of the marvels of our time that the nuclear industry
managed to resurrect itself from its ruins at the end of the
last century, when it crumbled under its costs, inefficiencies,
and mega-accidents. Chernobyl released hundreds of times the
radioactivity of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs combined,
contaminating more than 40% of Europe and the entire Northern
Hemisphere.1 But along came the nuclear lobby to breathe new
life into the industry, passing off as “clean” this
energy source that polluted half the globe. The “fresh
look at nuclear”—in the words of a New York
Times makeover piece (May 13, 2006)2—paved the way
to a “nuclear Renaissance” in the United States
that Fukushima has by no means brought to a halt.
mainstream media have been powerful advocates for nuclear power
comes as no surprise. “The media are saturated with a
skilled, intensive, and effective advocacy campaign by the nuclear
industry, resulting in disinformation” and “wholly
counterfactual accounts…widely believed by otherwise sensible
people,” states the 2010-2011 World Nuclear Industry Status
Report by Worldwatch Institute.3 What is less well understood
is the nature of the “evidence” that gives the nuclear
industry its mandate, Cold War science which, with its reassurances
about low-dose radiation risk, is being used to quiet alarms
about Fukushima and to stonewall new evidence that would call
a halt to the industry... 2011-08-17Bad
Facts, The Chernobyl Project blog
is power. -Especially in the sense that it prevents you
from being fooled by errors and mistakes made by others. However,
knowledge is not always the essential, say rather that an even
more important key lies within critical thinking which
have learnt you not to trust everything you see or hear. With
this quality added, you're not as likely to be deceived as without
about 2 years ago, I periodically engage in searching for literature
and documentaries concerning Chernobyl and by now I can say
that I've seen a large amount of documentaries and docudramas.
What ties these together, is following a common story - the
same story that we all now know was what happened at the Chernobyl
NPP and what became the consequences. I have been surprised
to find most of these documentaries almost perfectly neutral,
as a director would have all the chances in the world to hand
out backbites in such a subject, but most of them have chosen
a direct approach to tell the story "as it is".
some reason the American documentaries are different. I'm not
going to speculate in why, but one example is the documentary
"Chernobyl: Nuclear Meltdown" where the narrator seems
more interested in criticising the Soviet Union than telling
about the disaster and circumstances around it. This was for
me no big business; having shaked it off as a typical example
of bad, sensationalist journalism, I was more shocked to find
that even National Geographic had failed to make a proper documentary.
film by NE, an episode of their documentary series "Seconds
from Disaster" was produced and aired in August 2004 and
is angled to such a degree that you, watching it, will doubtlessly
start to wonder whether they just want to point out a scapegoat,
in this case Leonid Toptunov [Toptunov was a young engineer
and the operator responsible for amongst other things, the movement
of the control rods of reactor 4 on the night of the accident]
who is pictured as an ignorant commander of the safety tests
run in the 4th reactor block that night, and his superiors,
Aleksandr Akimov and Anatoliy Dyatlov - two important persons
on location as well as in the aftermaths, aren't even mentioned.
a long time, Akimov and Toptunov (who both died from irradiation
three weeks after the accident) were the popular men to blame
the disaster on, and the later imprisoned Dyatlov (being found
guilty for criminal mismanagement of potentially explosive enterprises) even
more so, but you cannot interview dead men, so instead National
Geographic chose to enhance the role of Boris Stolyarchuk, the
senior control engineer of reactor 4 that night, who is still
alive. (Also Stolyarchuk was accused for being responsible for
the accident, but was later freed from all charges). We can
here clearly see an example of changing the angle of a
story due to convenience. The parts of the operating personnel
of the 4th reactor on April 26th, 1986 have simply been altered.
The above is probably the largest error of this documentary,
but there are many more. For example, NE promise to "reveal"
how the Soviet nuclear power plant and its reactors functioned,
but that doesn't happen. They might as well be describing the
basics of how any nuclear reactor works.
Also, according to NE, a Pyotr Khmel was a firefighter chief,
but really - his name was Grigory Khmel and he was one of the
fire engine drivers. It's highly annoying to see how NE obviously
have spent a greater effort on digital effects and heavy metal
guitars than bothered to check up sources of proper information,
even for such a small detail. Had it only been this, they may
have been able to get away with it all, but there is simply
too much negligence and carelessness involved in this film to
make it acceptable, and the following quoting of the narrator
is really pushing it all over the edge of the roof and into
the reactor core along with the graphite:
10 days the toxic cloud has reached the United States and Asia,
and there's a threat to other countries as well."
is true that the US, nine days after the Chernobyl disaster
measured radioactive particles in the atmosphere, but the amount
was so small that it hardly opposed a threat to anyone. In
spite of normally trying to write in a sensible and objective
way, I must make an exception this time as I can't refrain from
commenting on how utterly stupid this is. As this documentary
is 45 hastily produced minutes of too much faulty information,
I wouldn't recommend it to anyone, but if you're curious and
still want to watch it, you may find it here: 2011-04-09Chernobyl
cover-up in Canada revealed by local BC official — “My
hair stood straight up” when told not to worry about radiation
from Fukushima by ENENews
Government and Mainstream Media
(MSM) Questionable Behavior Patterns
was scrupulously researched with the objective of identifying
the scientific truth about the health impact of the Chernobyl
radiation leak, and to dispel some of the widespread myth
and distortion surrounding the accident.
Brian King hasn't answered specific criticisms the second stage
of the complaints process has begun. The next stage is to refer
your complaint to the BBC's Editorial Complaints Unit. (We note
that Brian King's early responses included advice about the
ECU stage and even gave the addresses. Later he stopped being
so helpful, which suggests he's feeling the heat.)
you have received a response make sure you quote the reference
number when writing to ECU. Also include your postal address,
as ECU only sends written replies.
Editorial Complaints Unit's address is: Room 5170, White City,
BBC Media Village, 201 Wood Lane, London W12 7TS
programme in fact added to the myths and distortion. It expressed
the view of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World
Health Organisation. IAEA's primary purpose is to promote nuclear
power; WHO is subject to an IAEA veto on research. They claim
that Chernobyl has had no observable impact on health except
for thyroid cancers caused by a failure to distribute stable
iodine, and a few deaths and illness among highly irradiated
featured "experts" who made factually incorrect statements
all of which diminished the true scale of the effects. Here
are some examples.
He said the Chernobyl accident and the explosion at Fukushima
reactor 3 were hydrogen
explosions, whereas some experts contend that they were
both prompt criticality detonations.
Professor Gerry Thomas of Imperial College, London. Through
the Fukushima emergency she has been the BBC's favourite expert
on radiation and health. She said the UK
wasn't exposed to the radiation from Chernobyl, although
data from many official sources proves her wrong.
Vadim Chumak, a Ukrainian radiation dosimetry expert, tried
to compare exposure to Chernobyl fallout with high
natural background areas of India where, he claimed (wrongly),
no-one has health problems associated with radiation. He gave
Nick Ross a plausible measurement for natural
background in Kiev but every other factual statement he
made was wrong - by a factor of 1000 where he confused milliSieverts
with microSieverts, and by 8760 in the case where he gave
a dose per hour which (when you look into it) is really a
per year. The detail is in the LLRC commentary, together
with literature sources to prove who's right. Mr. Chumak didn't
seem to realise that if people in parts of Kerala really were
getting a dose of 50 milliSieverts an hour (which is what
he said) then they'd be getting 21,900
times as much dose as the internationally recognised dose
limit for adult workers in the nuclear industry. In fact,
the actual mean doses in the high background parts of Kerala
are 6.5 milliSieverts a year - not 50. Frighteningly, LLRC
has found out that Chumak is a member of a new World
Health Organisation "expert group" on radiation
and health research priorities.
Britain's former chief scientific officer, Professor Sir
David King, tried to down-play radiation exposures in Japan
since Fukushima by comparing the doses with cosmic rays on
from London to New York. He said the 8-hour flight would
give you "many, many times" as much as walking around
Fukushima. Fallout in Japan is very uneven but in many places
you'd be likely to get many times more dose, even if we overlook
the hard-to-detect alpha emitters.
largest collection of Chernobyl data so far published anywhere
- Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People
and Nature - was ignored. This is a compendium of evidence
including the challenging total of 985,000 deaths between 1986
and 2005 attributable to Chernobyl. Published in 2009 by the
New York Academy of Sciences it is now, fortunately, a free
download. ( Help with downloading it is here. )
has submitted a detailed complaint about Fallout: The Legacy
of Chernobyl to the BBC.
with LLRC commentary
programme failed to meet BBC editorial standards on accuracy
BBC claims to aim to achieve accuracy by:
"the accurate gathering of material using first hand
sources wherever possible.
checking and cross checking the facts.
validating the authenticity of documentary evidence and
corroborating claims and allegations made by contributors
practice, the BBC's commitment to impartiality means:
we strive to reflect a wide range of opinion and explore
a range and conflict of views so that no significant strand
of thought is knowingly unreflected or under represented.
we exercise our editorial freedom to produce content about
any subject, at any point on the spectrum of debate as long
as there are good editorial reasons for doing so.
we can explore or report on a specific aspect of an issue
or provide an opportunity for a single view to be expressed,
but in doing so we do not misrepresent opposing views. They
may also require a right of reply.
we must ensure we avoid bias or an imbalance of views on
and Other International
Organizations Questionable Behavior Patterns
of Chernobyl health studies in doubt:European
Commission unlikely to fund lifetime studies of those affected
by fallout by Declan Butler
much radiation is 'unsafe' for humans? For those exposed to
fallout from the disaster at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear
plant, the question is all too real. But there is still no good
answer: the accident has highlighted the enormous difficulties
in estimating the long-term health risks of relatively low doses
group of leading researchers in Europe had hoped that a fresh
round of studies on people exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl
nuclear disaster in 1986 would finally begin to help fill this
yawning science gap (see 'Lessons
from the past'). But their proposal is now looking increasingly
unlikely to proceed.
Chernobyl lifespan cohort study was one of the main components
of the Agenda for Research on Chernobyl Health (ARCH), which
was proposed last year by an international panel of experts
who had been charged by the European Commission to advise it
on future research needs (see 'Chernobyl's
legacy'). The study would track the lifetime health of more
than half a million 'liquidators' sent in to clean up the area
around Chernobyl, as well as of the general population of the
region who were children at the time of the accident. The power
of the study would lie in its size, offering more than ten times
as many people as the lifetime cohort study set up in Japan
after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, which remains
the gold standard for studies on the impact of radiation on
a population... 2011-04 Note on the unreliability of official
data published by WHO and IAEA, Health Effects of Chernobyl,
PPNW and GFS Report PDF.
the “Chernobyl Forum of the United Nations” organised
in September 2005 by the
International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organisation,
the presentation of
the results of work on the effects of Chernobyl showed serious
inconsistencies. For example:
the press release of the WHO and IAEA stated that in the future,
at most, 4000 surplus
fatalities due to cancer and leukaemia amongst the most severely
affected groups of people
might be expected. In the WHO report on which this was based
however, the actual number of
deaths is given as 8,930. These deaths were not mentioned in
any newspaper articles. When
one examines the source quoted in the WHO report, one arrives
at a number between 10,000
and 25,000 additional fatalities due to cancer and leukaemia.
this it can be rationally concluded that the official statements
of the IAEA and the WHO
have manipulated their own data. Their representation of the
effects of Chernobyl has little to
do with reality.
Chernobyl Forum also does not take into account that even UNSCEAR
has estimated that
the collective dose (the usual measurement for radiation damage)
for Europe outside the
region of the former Soviet Union is higher than the corresponding
data for the Chernobyl
region. The collective dose from the catastrophe was distributed
to 53% throughout Europe,
36% throughout the affected regions in the Soviet Union, 8%
in Asia, 2 % in Africa and
0.3% in America.
Pflugbeil pointed out already in 2005 that there were discrepancies
releases, the WHO report and the source quoted in it (Cardis
et al.). Up until now neither the
Chernobyl Forum, IAEA nor the WHO have deemed it necessary to
let the public know that, on
the basis of their own analysis, a two to five-fold higher number
of deaths due to cancer and
leukaemia are to be expected as the figures they have published.
in 2011 – some 5 years on - no official UN organisation
has as yet corrected these
figures. The latest UNSCEAR publication on the health effects
of Chernobyl does not take into
account any of the numerous results of research into the effects
of Chernobyl from the three
countries affected. Only one figure – that of 6,000 cases
of thyroid cancer among children
and juveniles, and leukaemia and cataracts in liquidators –
was included in there recent
information to the media. Thus, in 2011 the UNSCEAR committee
declared: On the basis of
studies carried out during the last 20 years, as well as of
previous UNSCEAR reports,
UNSCEAR has come to the conclusion that the large majority of
the population has no reason
to fear that serious health risks will arise from the Chernobyl
accident. The only exception
applies to those exposed to radioiodine during childhood or
youth and to liquidators who were
exposed to a high dose of radiation and therefore had to reckon
with a higher radiationinduced
green cheerleaders forget Chernobyl at our peril:Pundits who downplay the risks of radiation are
ignoring the casualties of the past. Fukushima's meltdown may
be worse by John Vidal,
words of Alexey Yablokov, member of the Russian academy
of sciences, and adviser to President Gorbachev at the time
of Chernobyl: "When you hear 'no immediate danger' [from
nuclear radiation] then you should run away as far and as fast
as you can..."
the end of 2006, Yablokov and two colleagues, factoring in the
worldwide drop in births and increase in cancers seen after
the accident, estimated in a study
published in the annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
that 985,000 people had so far died and the environment had
been devastated. Their findings were met with almost complete
silence by the World Health Organisation and the industry..." 2008-04-01The
World Health Organisation and Nuclear Power Chernobyl: The Great
Cover-Up by Alison Katz, Le Monde diplomatique
50 years dangerous concentrations of radionuclides have been
accumulating in earth, air and water from weapons testing and
reactor incidents. Yet serious studies of the effects of radiation
on health have been obscured – not least by the World
Health Organisation. . ." Stronger
than the tobacco lobby
decades the tobacco, agrochemical and petrochemical lobbies
have obstructed implementation of public health and environmental
measures that might interfere with their profits. But the nuclear
lobby is incomparably more powerful than any of these as it
comprises governments of nuclear states, most significantly,
the United States, the United Kingdom and France, and powerful
intergovernmental organisations. The disinformation emanating
from industrial and military lobbies is overwhelming –
and dangerously, it carries state authority.
the corruption of science also concerns our most prestigious
academic institutions which, as an editorial in The Lancet reported,
“have become businesses in their own right, seeking to
commercialise for themselves research discoveries rather than
preserve their independent scholarly status” (10). Peer-reviewed
studies, cited as evidence of the safety of nuclear activities,
all too often emanate from, or are financed by, the nuclear
lobby .... 2003 Nuclear
Controversies (50:15) "Documentary of 51 mn
of Wladimir Tchertkoff (2003). In June 2001 in Kiev, the nuclear
based experts of the IAEA and WHO maintain that the catastrophe
of Tchernobyl made only 31 died `approximately'…" 2011-10-22German
Gov’t Study: Children living near nuclear plants have
double leukemia rates, high incidence of solid cancers —
Reactors cannot prevent radiation from escaping (VIDEO)
by ENENews.com [Ed. Note: I have added the red boldface].
TV, Oct. 21 — Dr. Helen Caldicott appeared
on the LINK TV program Earth
Focus to discuss the Fukushima crisis and other nuclear
received her medical degree from the University of Adelaide
Medical School. In 1977 she joined the staff of the Children’s
Hospital Medical Center in Boston, and taught pediatrics at
the Harvard Medical School from 1977 to 1978. She worked to
establish the group International Physicians for the Prevention
of Nuclear War which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985.
6:15 in Chernobyl
health effects are the biggest cover-up in the history of medicine.
WHO, IAEA, UN all covered up effects. At
gov’t study on children under 5 that lived within 5km
of reactors showed double leukemia and high incidence of solid
cancers… deformities (teratogenesis). The closer to reactor,
the higher the malignancy.
plants cannot prevent tritium (Radioactive hydrogen) from escaping…
is probably what’s causing the cancers in the kids that
live near power plants in Germany. 2008-04-14The World Health Organisation
and nuclear power:Chernobyl:
the great cover-up: For 50 years dangerous concentrations of radionuclides
have been accumulating in earth, air and water from weapons
testing and reactor incidents. Yet serious studies of the effects
of radiation on health have been obscured – not least
by the World Health Organisation. by Alison Katz
June 2007 Gregory Hartl, World Health Organisation (WHO) spokesman
for Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments, claimed
that the proceedings of the international conference held in
Geneva in 1995 on the health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster
had been duly published (1). This was not so. And the proceedings
of the Kiev conference in 2001 have never been published either.
Challenged by journalists a few months later, the WHO repeated
the claim, providing references to a collection of abstracts
for the Kiev conference and just 12 articles (out of hundreds)
submitted to the Geneva conference.
26 April 2007 (the 21st anniversary of Chernobyl), a large placard
has informed WHO employees each day that one million children
in the area around Chernobyl are irradiated and ill. IndependentWHO,
the group organising the action, accuses the WHO of a cover-up
of the health consequences of the catastrophe, and of failing
to assist populations in danger.
WHO, they insist, must end the agreement made in 1959 which
binds it to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2)
and prevents it from initiating a programme or activity in the
area of nuclear power without consulting the IAEA “with
a view to adjusting the matter by mutual agreement” (Article
1, Point 2).
from the IAEA would permit the WHO to conduct a serious, scientific
evaluation of the disaster and provide appropriate health care
to contaminated people. A resolution to this effect is in preparation
for the World Health Assembly in May 2008 (3) and an Appeal
by Health Professionals has been launched (4). Industrial
and military lobby
to its statutes, the IAEA (a UN agency which reports to the
Security Council) is mandated to “to accelerate and enlarge
the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity
throughout the world”. It is in fact a lobby, industrial
and military, which should have no role to play in public health
policymaking or research.
IAEA has vetoed conferences planned by WHO on radioactivity
and health and, in turn, the WHO has endorsed the nuclear lobby’s
grotesque statistics on mortality and morbidity relating to
the Chernobyl accident – 56 dead and 4,000 thyroid cancers
(5). Denial of disease inevitably implies denial of health care.
Nine million people live in areas with very high levels of radioactivity;
for 21 years now these populations have had no choice but to
consume contaminated food, with devastating effects on their
the nuclear lobby, any research indicating harm from ionising
radiation represents a commercial threat that must at all costs
be averted. Research on damage to the human genome (one of the
most serious consequences of the contamination) was not part
of the international project requested of the WHO in 1991 by
the health ministers of Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation.
Yet dental caries was made a research priority. And although
these countries had addressed their research request to the
WHO, it was the IAEA which planned the project.
conflict of interest has already been fatal for hundreds of
thousands of people according to studies by independent scientists
and institutions (7). And the greatest burden of disease and
death is yet to come – given long latency periods, the
increasing concentration of radionuclides in internal organs
from food grown in contaminated soil, and damage to the human
genome over many generations.
of epidemiological studies in Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian
Federation have established that there has been a significant
rise in all types of cancer causing thousands of deaths, an
increase in infant and perinatal mortality, a large number of
spontaneous abortions, a growing number of deformities and genetic
anomalies, disturbance and retardation of mental development,
neuropsychological illness, blindness, and diseases of the respiratory,
cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital and endocrine systems
who will believe them? Four months after the meltdown Morris
Rosen, the IAEA’s director of nuclear safety, said: “Even
if there were an accident of this type every year, I would still
regard nuclear power as a valuable source of energy” (9).
Public information on the real health consequences of Chernobyl
could seriously change the debate about nuclear options. And
that is why the WHO is afraid of the children of Chernobyl ...[more
European Questionable Behavior Patterns
Sweden, Russia Animal Radiation Contamination Explored,
Sami are an indigenous people living in Norway, Finland, Sweden
and Russia. They are reindeer herders, who manage hundreds of
thousands of reindeer in the frigid North.
living approximately 1,100 miles from Chernobyl, their way of
life and food that they relied on as their main source of nutrition
was negatively affected by Cesium 137 contamination from the
Chernobyl accident in 1986.
the accident, the authorities told the Sami people that they
would not be able to sell or eat the meat of their reindeer
"for at least 40 years".
to Wikipedia; "Reindeer have major cultural and economic
significance for indigenous peoples of the North. The human-ecological
systems in the North, like reindeer pastoralism, are sensitive
to change, perhaps more than in virtually any other region of
the globe, due in part to the variability of the Arctic climate
and ecosystem and the characteristic ways of life of indigenous
nuclear disaster caused nuclear fallout in the sensitive
Arctic ecosystems and poisoned fish, meat and berries. Lichens
and mosses are two of the main forms of vegetation in the Arctic
and are highly susceptible to airborne pollutants and heavy
metals. Since many do not have roots, they can absorb nutrients,
and toxic compounds, through their leaves. The lichens accumulated
airborne radiation, and 73,000 reindeer had to be destroyed
as "unfit" for human consumption in Sweden alone.
The government promised Sami indemnification, which was not
acted upon by government.
wastes and spent nuclear fuel have been stored in the waters
off the Kola Peninsula, including locations that are only "two
kilometers" from places where Sami live. There are a minimum
of five nuclear waste "dumps" where spent nuclear
fuel and other radioactive waste are being deposited in the
Kola Peninsula, often with little concern for the surrounding
environment or Sami population." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sami_people
Swedish National Food Administration (SLV) converted the Swedish
Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) recommendations into safe
radiation limits for food. After the Chernobyl accident, the
SLV set an initial trigger for unsafe radiation levels and destruction
of the reindeer for any found to contain radiation above a 'safe'
limit of 300 Bq per kilogram.
meant that wild game, fish, berries or any other food above
this limit was considered unfit for human consumption.
Sweden, this 'safe' level was gradually raised from 300 to 1,500
and then finally to 10,000 Bq per kilogram over the next few
years. Any reindeer now testing lower than 10,000 Bq/kg is now
considered 'safe' to consume, sell or export.
raising of 'safe' radiation levels in wild meat also had the
effect of lowering the percentage of animals testing unsafe
for consumption from 80% in 1986, to less than 1% today. In
1986, some of the reindeer meat tested with radiation levels
as high as 40,000 Bq/kg.
course, this also reduced the amount of money that the government
authorities had to pay to the Sami for these destroyed animals
by a huge amount. Could this monetary incentive be part or possibly
the only reason why radiation levels were raised from 300 to
problem with this fast implementation is that it was discovered
that the fallout from nuclear testing had been subjecting the
Sami peoples to doses of radiation over 3,000 Bq/kg for many
years, without the health or nuclear radiation protection authorities
doing anything about it, much less notifying people about the
dangers or risks.
Soviets were testing nuclear bombs in Novaya Zemlya during the
1950's and 60's, which produced radioactive Cesium levels in
the reindeer at levels that reached 3,000 Bq/kg.
the Sami people had a problem understanding why all of a sudden,
300 Bq/kg of radiation was considered unsafe and their animals
had to be destroyed. Many of them lost faith in radiation protection
authorities and started ignoring them completely. http://www.utexas.edu/courses/sami/dieda/socio/chernobyl.htm
the UK, the trigger for contaminated animals such as sheep was
1000 Bq per kilogram, and in Germany, the trigger for animals
such as deer and wild pig is still only 600 Bq per kilogram.
Norway, right after the Chernobyl crisis in 1986, the reindeer
meat radiation limit was set at 600 Bq/kg. This was then raised
one year later to 6,000 Bq/kg. The authorities said it was still
safe to eat even with this elevated radiation level, because
this meat was considered a 'luxury' food item, not meant to
be consumed daily.
is also interesting to note, that the 'safe' standards of radiation
in food or drink vary by orders of magnitude, depending on which
country one lives in or visits. There is no international standard
for 'safe' levels of radiation in milk, meat or water, so a
person could be exposed to 10,000 Bq/kg of radiation in food
or drink, and that food or drink could still be considered 'safe'.
the following articles for more information;
Established Animal Radiation 'Controls' Due To Cesium Contamination;
via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html
Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A
Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-boars-and-deer-unfit-to-eat.html
of the responses to the Chernobyl nuclear accident was the loss
of fish, berries and other wild game that was often harvested
by people living areas such as Norway, Sweden, Finland, etc.
The governments of these countries set up reimbursement programs
and compensated people for the loss of berries, fish, and wild
game meat that was found to be radioactively contaminated.
type of reimbursement was to pay reindeer herders to feed their
deer uncontaminated feed brought in from other areas, not affected
by radiation. Many berry farmers and fishermen received monetary
compensation due to the radioactive contamination of these foodstuffs. http://www.utexas.edu/courses/sami/dieda/socio/chernobyl.htm
Norway, some researchers developed a radiation binding pellet
product that could be fed to the reindeer about six weeks before
harvest, and they found that the radiation levels would be reduced
as a result. These feed pellets contained Prussian blue pigment.
effect of these pellets was to bind the Cesium 137 coming in
with the contaminated lichen, and prevent it from being absorbed
into the meat. The bonded particles would end up being too large
to be absorbed in the gut and would thus be excreted rather
than being absorbed. Researchers found that by using this technique
they could reduce the Cesium 137 load in meat by 50% or more.
In milk cows, this product could reduce the Cesium 137 in milk
by 80%. Hoke, Franklin. “Seizing Cesium.” Environment.
June 1991, Vol. 33, Issue 5: 21. Scientific
the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed
significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both
before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl
accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves,
during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed
areas." http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0165799295900489 Teachers
teachers guide is available from PBS, to help students understand
more about radiation, these reindeer and how they were affected.
Scientific American Frontiers:Previous Shows:Transcripts:Nordic
- PBS www.pbs.org/saf/transcripts/transcript803.htm
Radioactive Wolves In Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Movie Review,
following is a review of the PBS movie 'Radioactive Wolves'.
Filmmakers and scientists come into the Chernobyl area to document
the lives of the packs of wolves. These German scientists 'start'
the animal research studies and then turn it over to the Belarus
and Ukranian scientists so that they can continue the 'studies'.
question is; why were there no animal, fish, bird or insect
studies done from 1986 to now? What happened to all of these
Russian scientists and researchers, biologists and scientists?
Where did they all go?
researchers then mention that the Pripiat River carries lots
of radiation downstream. Then they fail to connect the dots
and say what negative effect this radiation in the river has
on people who live downstream. Once more, an opportunity is
lost to educate people about the dangers of low level radiation
spreading out of the exclusion zone, via flowing water. Why
avoid the whole subject? Why not go into it and explore this
whole subject of radiation in river water, fish and downstream
researchers then test moose bones on the bank of the river and
find that they are contaminated with radiation that is '50'
times normal levels. (Too bad that they did not mention the
actual radiation levels or the type of radiation that they found,
because it makes it sound like this is no big deal.) They did
not even say what kind of radiation detector they had, or what
kind of radiation they were measuring. Was it alpha, beta, gamma
or something else entirely, like neutron beams? Again, lots
of useless information that means absolutely nothing. This segment
provides no helpful information for people to learn about radiation.
announcer says that about 300 radioactively contaminated wolves
are estimated to live inside the exclusion zone around Chernobyl
(This number is disputed by the actual professor at the end,
who says there are no more than 120).
this PBS movie, they explain that after they trap the wolf,
that the researchers have to wear masks and gloves. They mention
that if they ingest any wolf hairs either by nose or mouth,
they will be ‘poisoned’ by radiation.
there is no mention of the amount of radiation they found in
or on the wolf, or how one wolf hair would 'poison' them. Too
bad, because this was ANOTHER excellent opportunity to educate
the public about the dangers of low level radiation. How and
why is one radioactive wolf hair going to poison and kill someone?
And how does the wolf stay so healthy, when just one hair from
it will kill a human?
lack of reporting about any useful information about radiation
and the danger it poses makes the movie a little entertaining,
but not at all scientific, informative or educational.
Section three of the movie, they focus on a bison calf that
died, which the wolves discovered and ate. The announcer says
the calf died of the cold. How do they know that? Why would
a calf just die of cold, when it is living in the most radioactive
contaminated zone in the world?
it make more sense that the calf died of radiation poisoning,
or that it died of a genetic defect caused by living in such
a highly radioactive environment?
an opportunity existed to educate the public about the dangers
of radiation, but is lost once again by dismissing radiation
as the cause of ANY animal deaths. They never bother to take
any tissue samples or measure ANYTHING at all. A meaningless
and useless claim is made, with NO EVIDENCE to back it up.
assumption made by viewers is that ALL animals in the zone must
be healthy, which is an absolute deception, falsehood and lie.
By saying what they say, they make it seem like this exclusion
zone is all normal or safe, and that radiation is actually HELPING
the animals and good for them somehow.
they say in this same section that the wolves do not have to
hunt anymore, what do they mean? When they say there are a large
numbers of wolves, and that means that they must be in 'robust'
health, how did they reach that conclusion?
can ONE wolf hair 'poison' researchers, but at the same time,
all of these wolves are in 'robust' health? This does not make
any sense, and shows how ignorant the announcer of this program
is about the negative health effects of low level radiation.
Either that, or this announcer is trying to mislead the viewers
announcer says that the Russian and German researchers are given
only a 'limited' time in the radioactive exclusion zone, to
keep their exposure to radiation down to 'safe' levels.
the announcer says wolf cubs are 'thriving' while living in
this highly radioactive environment FULL TIME. So how can humans
be in danger of negative health effects, while only visiting
briefly, and at the same time, wolves living in this death zone
are 'thriving'? Again, this makes no logical sense. Is the announcer
claiming that massive amounts of radiation are good for animals,
but small amounts are dangerous, or what?
the announcer says that low level radiation negative health
effects are difficult to measure or find in either animals,
rats, wolves or humans. They claim that they can learn NOTHING
by examining individual animals. They can learn something only
by looking at the overall population. This is a patently absurd
claim, totally devoid of meaning or truth.
again... scientists can learn a lot by doing animal autopsies.
They can learn a lot by taking tissue samples, and internal
radiation measurements of individual animals. Again, this claim
by the announcer is NOT scientific, just pure speculation. Once
again, we have pure falsehoods being spewed by either an ignorant
person, or someone who is TRYING hard to mislead people.
of these things are true that the announcer is claiming. How
did they come up with this rationale, which is not scientific,
nor logical? This announcers conclusion makes absolutely no
sense at all.
an area that is only a mile from the Chernobyl reactor, the
announcer says the researchers 'have to wear masks', due to
dust and windy conditions that stir up radiation. Then they
enter into an area where the whole forest was killed by radiation,
and then it was bulldozed. The researchers are studying mice
in this area, which they say is highly contaminated and radioactive.
door mice that they are studying are in the Red Forest, which
is now green again. A six year study found that out of all door
mice that they find, only 4 - 6% of them have 'slight' abnormalities.
They say this is 'twice' the level of 'clean' areas. This again
makes absolutely NO sense whatsoever.
also say that door mouse reproduction and number of mice are
better than in clean areas. The announcer is concluding that
all other animals in the exclusion have similar effects as these
door mice. Are these mice being raised in a bulldozed area where
all radioactive soil was removed? Are they bringing in clean,
vitamin enriched food for them to eat? No Geiger Counter measurements
were taken of either the soil, what they were eating, or of
there is no mention of actual radiation amounts in the mice,
or any other animals, what types of radiation they are finding
or if they are even measuring anything except for checking on
numbers of mice in a nesting box once in awhile, in a possibly
artificially cleaned up area. Lots of useless information is
presented again, with no REAL information.
section four, a 'researcher' observes and counts the number
of chicks in ONE falcon nest. He concludes that they are 'healthy'.
Again, there is absolutely no mention of radiation levels and
no Geiger Counter or other radiation measurement is taken in
any way. No feather samples are taken.
genetic tests are being done on any of these animals, because
they do not believe in testing individual animals, which is
lack of radiation measurements at this point is becoming ridiculously
apparent, making the whole movie seem like a staged stunt, designed
to promote tourism of this whole highly contaminated area.
not build a hotel in this area and bring in the tourists, if
everything is so 'safe' and 'healthy'? Why not catch some fish
out of the cooling pond next to the reactor and serve them in
the hotel restaurant, along with some bison meat?
is absolutely NO mention of any health effects from the high
doses of radiation that are inside of all of these animals that
they are obviously consuming. This is misleading at best and
totally deceptive at worst.
one is doing any internal radiation measurements. No one is
doing autopsies of animals that do die in this area, or so it
seems. This is not science, but rather more like a promotion
stunt for establishment of more 'exclusion zone' Nature preserves.
they mention giant catfish, which are eight feet long in a cooling
pool next to the Chernobyl reactor. The announcer concludes
absolutely that the large size of the fish is due to their age,
and has absolutely nothing to do with radioactivity. How does
he know FOR SURE?
in the very next scene, they are measuring fish bones from the
very same pool, from the very same fish near the Chernobyl reactor,
where those 'healthy' falcons and hawks dragged them out and
ate their flesh.
they go near the bones, the radiation meters go crazy, beeping
like mad, as the researchers bring them near to the bones, and
the announcer says; "These fish bones should not be touched
with bare hands. What this contamination does to the eagles
is still NOT KNOWN".
only reason that the effects are not KNOWN, is because no one
is researching that. Purposefully avoiding researching something
makes it seem like a mystery.
at such high levels is going to negatively affect health of
animals or humans that eat it, pure and simple. There is no
mystery here.. They are just avoiding the whole subject of the
negative health effects of radiation in this movie, PERIOD.
At this point, we can conclude this is pure propaganda for the
nuke industry, and nothing more. This movie is getting more
and more ridiculous.
the researchers go down the river, while making the claim that
the river downstream of the Pripiat, where it meets a larger
river is all "clear of radiation", and "the fish
are all safe to eat, even by humans". They offer no proof,
no actual fish are shown, no radiation measurements are taken.
There are just lots of empty boasts and claims, which sound
completely ridiculous. The announcer stated in the beginning
of the show, that the Pripiat still carries radiation downstream
from the Chernobyl contaminated exclusion zone, where it floods
twenty mile across areas.
can both things be true at the same time? How can the river
Pripiat flood highly radioactive areas? How can this highly
radioactive water then flow downstream, while magically getting
clean and radiation free again, while not affecting anyone or
anything downstream? Again this makes absolutely no logical
sense and makes the whole movie seem stupid and propagandistic.
they trying to promote the nuclear industry by making these
toxic waste zones with very high radiation zones seem inviting,
healthy, safe and friendly? If this is the goal, we could not
do a better job if we tried.
the final segment the announcer glowingly exclaims how wonderful
the endangered species of horses are in this exclusion zone,
and that they are quickly breeding and recovering remarkably.
blames poachers for cutting their numbers from the 300 they
'expected' to have by this time, down to the 60 that actually
exist now. How does he know what killed these horses? What if
radiation killed the foals? What if they were aborted or stillborn?
This is normally what happens in highly radioactive zones like
has the evidence that 'poachers' are the ones to blame for killing
(and eating) all of these wonderful but highly radioactive horses?
These horses are wandering around in a highly toxic, radioactive
exclusion zone where people are not even allowed in. Why would
people eat highly radioactive horse meat anyway?
it be possible that the wolves are taking out all of the sick,
genetically deformed and weak horses, who are most affected
by the radiation? Nope, the announcer is ABSOLUTELY sure that
the wolves do not prey on these cute horses... It ABSOLUTELY
must be the evil poachers.
program ends by summarizing what the researchers are studying,
which consists of counting the wolves and their pups and estimating
their 'survival' rate, compared to 'clean' areas of equal size.
Russian professor concludes that in a clean area that has the
same area as the Chernobyl exclusion zone, he would expect about
300 wolves. However, he could not count more than around 120
wolves in this same amount of land around the Chernobyl meltdown
the PBS announcer says that there are just as many wolves in
Chernobyl, as in a clean area of the same size. How can he come
to this illogical conclusion, when the professor just said the
opposite of that?
announcer makes it sound like this Chernobyl exclusion zone
is a wolf resort area, full of healthy, happy wolves, galloping
health horses, and birds who just love this area, and who cannot
wait to sunbathe by the 'clean' Pripiat River.
movie, though interesting visually, is a HUGE disappointment.
It contains absolutely no scientific or useful information,
other than glowing testimonials about how safe radiation exclusion
zones are for animals, and presumably for humans too.
is strange to note that there are no humans living in this area..
Why not, if it is so healthy and safe? If it is so good for
the animals, why would it not be healthy and safe for humans?
all of this makes absolutely no logical sense, nor does it have
any scientific merit, but it sounds good and makes the nuclear
industry look like something desirable to have around, so they
can have more nuclear 'accidents' and create more 'Nature' zones,
where wolves, birds and horses can have their Garden of Eden...
take on this whole movie is that it was directly financed by
the nuclear industry. This movie in our opinion puts a deceptive
spin on a deadly truth, which is totally covered up in this
line, to find out the truth about nuclear radiation, the public
is much better off avoiding the entire PBS site and reading
the following articles.
Radioactive Wolves In Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Movie Review http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/chernobyl-pbs-radioactive-wolves-in.html
2012-03-20 Dr. James Fetzer interview with
Leuren Moret and Dr. Majia Nadesan on The
Real Deal, 30 March 2012:
Moret: There is a book you might like to read Majia,
or people in the audience. It is called Fire
in the Rain: The Democratic Consequences of Chernobyl
Gould, and he was the Evan
Pugh professor of geography at Penn State. This was published
by John Hopkins Press in 1990. And it is very interesting
because we can compare what is happening today surrounding
Fukushima in terms of deception, and basically "deny
and delay" is the main mechanism. They keep shoving the
disaster off the chart. And in this book it has a figure which
is called the relationship between the degree to which a country
is dependant on atomic power and the degree to which information
about Chernobyl's effects were manipulated or suppressed.
And what is interesting is the countries who were least dependent
on atomic power were the least manipulative with the information
and the developments. And those countries were Denmark, Portugal,
Norway, Austria, and Ireland. And contrast that to the countries
or the governments that did the most manipulation and suppression
of information and those were Belgium and France, which are
very, very, very dependent. In fact France is 75% dependent
on nuclear energy compared to the U.S. which is maybe 20%
or something like that. So that is one of the explanations.
It is the profits and the finances that really have a lot
to do with what they report and don't report. --- Their own
industry. And then also General Electric and Westinghouse
own ABC and NBC so they are the biggest builders in the designers
of nuclear power plants in the world. So we are not going
to see it on TV in the U.S.
court dismisses ‘Chernobyl effect’ case,
complain that French authorities were negligent, failing to
take preventive measures such as banning the consumption of
fresh produce. Some claim the effects of Chernobyl were minimised,
partly to protect France’s own nuclear industry."
Pellerin: French Nuclear Henchman Indicted in Aftermath of Chernobyl
LAURENT / Lasting News
— An ex-government official was indicted yesterday of
lying and misleading the population in areas affected by radiation
doses after the Chernobyl explosion. Pierre Pellerin, the head
of the nuclear security watchdog in France at the time of the
Chernobyl explosion in April  2006 [sic], has been accused
for a long time of having lied about the effects in France of
a now legendary TV statement in early may, Professor Pellerin
famously declared that the Chernobyl nuclear cloud stopped its
course just short at the French eastern border.
Mr Pellerin, there never were public health issues after the
Chernobyl explosion in France. This point of view, which is
also the stance of the powerful nuclear lobby in France, has
been challenged for twenty years by independent studies giving
evidence of an increase of thyroid cancer and thyroid disease
in the most affected areas — especially in the eastern
part of the island of Corse. 2011-04-24
Primordial fear: why radiation is so scary by Marlowe
Agence France-Presse (h/t Molecular
Geneticist: They said there was nothing in France from Chernobyl…
in fact there was — Impression authorities were lying,
April 23, 2011)
health and death tolls from Chernobyl -- and the areas affected
-- are still fiercely disputed, and estimates vary hugely.
very uncertainty further fuels alarm, experts say.
was one [living in France] supposed to know whether or not to
worry about a radioactive cloud?" asked Francois Taddei,
a molecular geneticist at the French National Institute of Health
and Medical Research (INSERM).
Chernobyl, we were told that there was nothing, which in fact
there was. How does one rebuild confidence?"
had the impression -- justified or not -- that the authorities
were lying, and so everything they said was cast into doubt,"
Facility" very close to Chernobyl and powered by its reactors,
NATO code-named "The Steel Yard." (Illustration from
Planet Forum thread web page which has extensive commentary
on this topic). This site had many probable uses, such as detecting
incoming missiles, employing climate control and weather-warfare
HAARP applications, and perhaps even transmitting frequencies
capable of exerting mind-control effects on people around the
as usual for Israel, the U.S., the UK, and their Rothschild
/ City of London overseers
and Other Subversive Analysis: The Case
for Chernobyl as a False Flag (Covert Sabotage) Event
Overview by William B. Fox
President, America First Institute
am providing links to a variety of different false flag hypotheses
below, which are sorted out by standard false flag characteristics.
Thus far I have uncovered numerous strong "indicators"
that Chernobyl Reactor 4 was deliberately sabotaged.
am indebted to Leuren Moret, whose helped me better understand
a more complex underlying reality than the usual U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.
"Cold War" paradigm typically portrayed by "conservatives"
during the Gorbachev-Reagan era. In reality, there was a complex
three way interaction between the U.S., Rothschilds / City of
London, and U.S.S.R. Sometimes all of these parties were covert
partners with each others. At other times, one or two of these
parties would stab another in the back. (As an aside, there
were certainly more than just three social, cultural, ethnic,
and economic factions in global competition with each other
on different levels during this era, and hence the underlying
reality was really more "three dimensional" than just
"two dimensional" in nature, but for the purposes
of this discussion, the three-way "two dimensional"
model is adequate).
reminds me of the Machiavellian standoff within the former Soviet
Union described by Viktor Suvorov (pen name) in Inside
the Aquarium: Making of a Top Soviet Spy about the
GRU (Soviet military intelligence). According to Suvorov, the
Soviet military was so traumatized by the Stalinist purges of
the late 1930's that it decided to develop its own internal
intelligence organization (the GRU) that essentially duplicated
major capabilities of the KGB in order to serve as a defensive
shield against any possible future purges. According to Suvorov,
the post WWII Soviet power structure evolved into three pillars,
namely the Communist Party, the KGB, and the GRU. They often
watched each other as closely as they watched foreign enemies.
Whenever one group would get too powerful, the other two would
gang up against it to pull it down.
like the farmer
and the cowman in the musical Oklahoma!,
the GRU and FSB (formerly the KGB) should be friends!
Caption from Putin
inspects new Intelligence HQ; "Russian President
[and former KGB officer] Vladimir Putin (R) and GRU military
intelligence head Valentin Korabelnikov (C) listen to
explanations during a visit at the new GRU military intelligence
headquarters building in Moscow November 8, 2006. (Xinhua/AFP
an aside, the GRU attempted to duplicate and parallel virtually
all of the KGB's foreign espionage activities, which actually
was not such a bad thing for the Soviets to the extent that
intelligence agencies often like to confirm information from
at least three different independent sources before accepting
anything as fact, and the GRU and KGB cross-checked with each
other in certain areas. Furthermore, a little interservice rivalry
helped keep people on their toes. Lastly, there is strong evidence
that the Soviet military was victimized during the Great
Purge by the incompetence of the KGB's predecessor, the
to Jean Vaughan, the biographer of Nazi security services
Heydrich, "In 1936 Heydrich helped forge thirty-two
documents that launched the purges that caused Joseph Stalin
to liquidate his entire General and General staff command."
senses a similar tug of war took place during the Reagan-Gorbachev
era, sometimes cooperating, sometimes back-stabbing, between
various factions of the United States, Rothschilds / City of
London, and U.S.S.R. on an international level that echoes the
aforementioned internal turf battles between the GRU, KGB, and
The old SPOTLIGHT, precursor to The American Free Press,
once noted that the key to solving the JFK assassination mystery
lies not so much in determining who had a motive to kill John
F. Kennedy, but who had the power to compromise America's security
forces and sustain a cover-up in national media for decades,
an approach used by Michael Collins Piper in his classic work
Judgment. The same approach applies to Chernobyl.
Focusing on who has the capability to not only conduct intelligence
operations, but also sustain a continuous cover-up in the U.S.,
UK, and former U.S.S.R. produces a very short list
are important reasons why I try to take a "full spectrum
analysis" approach and explore deep sociological, ethnic,
and historical roots behind the hypothesis that this was another
Rothschild / City of London false flag operation carried out
through Mossad-CIA-MI6 and their allies with the Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory. The
general public must understand the underlying agenda and motivations
of nuclear saboteurs. They are increasing global radiation levels
while simultaneously covering up their crimes in major media.
Deep background knowledge is necessary for fellow citizens to
de-brainwash themselves and motivate themselves to take appropriate
self-protective action against existing levels of contamination
related to the Chernobyl catastrophe, bomb testing, nuclear
power plants, and depleted uranium while at the same time guard
themselves against rising -- and dangerous -- levels of Fukushima
fallout that are still raining down on America and bio-accumulating
in America's food and water supplies.
following are key points regarding Chernobyl I have unearthed
so far in my research:
significant sources point the finger at Chernobyl as a false
flag sabotage event:
expert and DU whistleblower Leuren Moret. She
claims that a former head of naval military intelligence for
India who was intimately familiar with nuclear reactors for
subs and who had toured Soviet nuclear facilities told her that
the Chernobyl catastrophe could only have been due to sabotage
because of the 14 layers of safety procedures that had to have
been deliberately violated. She also cites testimony of former
co-workers at the Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory in California. Lawrence had
workers at Chernobyl both before and after the explosion,
and they subsequently created what Ms. Moret views as a highly
suspicious and phony cover-up after action report. Ms. Moret
does not believe that a mini-nuke was necessary to trigger the
explosion. Simply sabotaging enough procedures could do the
job, causing reactor fuel to quickly go into melt-down and produce
extremely hot "corium."
According to Ms. Moret, hot corium can melt through concrete
floors and down through the ground water fairly quickly, which
is what she believes what might have caused the main explosion.
In Ms. Moret's view, stories about a mini-nuke going off or
Soviet miners placing additional concrete underneath the reactor
to prevent the corium from reaching ground water could be disinformation.
There are people in charge of nuclear industries who do not
want the public to know how quickly reactors can go into meltdown
and how fast corium can melt through not only containment structures,
but also through basement areas and down towards groundwater.
Note: For more background on Ms. Moret, please see the author
archive that I have created for her works here.
A number of experts believe that the Fukushima 3 reactor explosion
was atomic in nature and due to "supercriticality"
within the corium. The article The
Non-Battle of Fukushima …by
Steve From Virginia explains how a large mass of corium
can "condense" and go "supercritical," resulting
in an atomic explosion without necessarily hitting groundwater.
In the RT video Fukushima
Crisis in the Spotlight As Chernobyl Tragedy Turns 25,
uploaded April 25, 2011 to YouTube, Dr. Chris Busby talks about
how a recent conference of physicists in Germany concluded that
both the Fukushima Reactor 3 explosion on March 14, 2011 and
the Chernobyl explosion were very likely nuclear explosions
involving corium reactions. Ms. Moret's observation that there
exist high level officials who do not want the public to know
how quickly reactors can go into meltdown and how fast and how
far corium can melt through has been validated by my Fukushima
research, where the Japanese government and major media covered
up the quick meltdown status of the reactors on 3-11 2011 for
months. Government officials and major media have also covered
up Fukushima plume forecasts and radiation readings in North
America and Europe. Please start at the beginning of my "Aerial
Dance of Mass Death and Genetic Destruction" Week-by-week
Fukushima radiation and fallout projections and companion articles
series and scroll through for supporting evidence.
Please also see Dr. Majia Nadesan's "Lessons
of Fukushima" lecture about media cover-ups.
This was provided at a Feb 2012 symposium at Willamette University
in Portland, Oregon. If certain high level officials
and the general public were made fully aware of how quickly
nuclear power plant "accidents" can result in a meltdowns,
out-of-control melt-throughs, supercriticality atomic explosions,
and continuous "dirty nuke" poisoning of vast areas,
the political reaction may cause all nuclear power plants within
a country to shut down. As a point of fact, within four days
of the Fukushima 3-11 melt-downs, the German government took
seven reactors offline, and in May 2011 it decided to shut
down all 17 of its nuclear power plants by the year 2022.]
Baranov, Former Chief Of Staff Deputy For Special Zone Forces,
in Chernobyl nuclear power plant area retired colonel. His statement
is provided below.
Ivanov Gorbachev, PhD. Sci. Sciences, Senior Research Fellow
has posted articles that talk about a "double order"
passed down from a mystery person at the Politburo level that
very likely helped cause the catastrophe. He also talks about
how important evidence has been covered up, and how all of this
may be traced to a hostile foreign intelligence agency like
CIA and MI6. One example is his article "The
Chernobyl Catastrophe: who provoked it?" NuclearNo.ru,
26 April 2012. [Editor's note: Unfortunately running the page
URL through translate.google.com does not translate the entire
Russian text, so you have to copy and paste all of it yourself.
Also, some items do not get properly translated, such as "ee"
in the title. A reader was kind enough to send me an email explaining
that "`ee' means `it'; in Russian a catastrophe is a female"].
I do not know enough about the aforementioned Russian individuals
to vouch for their credibility, I think that they are generating
enough leads and ideas to be worth mentioning.
Highly suspicious circumstantial evidence regarding
"accident"-related investigations, investigators,
testimony, and "findings of fact."
are too many contradictions and unanswered questions regarding
the actual cause of the event. For starters, Reactor 4 which
blew up was relatively new, and Dr. Thomas J. Csermely at Syracuse
University claims that all the reactors in the Chernobyl complex
an exemplary operating record. None
of the documentaries I have viewed on YouTube produced by major
sources such as BBC, History Channel, and Discovery Channel
are in solid agreement about the key causes of the explosion.
Interestingly enough, a Swedish blogger (at chernobylproject.blogspot.com)
who has visited Chernobyl came up with this same opinion independent
of myself, as reflected in the extract I provide in the questionable
American media section above.
Also, no can anyone adequately explain a frequently alleged
witness testimonies given in court about Chernobyl -- in which
the Director of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was sentenced
to ten years in prison for violation of safety procedures --
have apparently not been released to the public yet. Obviously
there is quite a lot of legal "discovery" work that
needs to be done for serious Chernobyl researchers.
the Director of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant has stated
that authorities are concealing the truth from the public. When
the Devil Gets Old..., chernobylproject.blogspot.com,
(by a Swedish blogger, I have added the boldface below), dated
27 Sept 2011, comments:
Petrovich Bryukanov - the former director of the Chernobyl
NPP was persecuted and convicted due to actions and decisions
made during the preceding hours as well as the critical period
of the disaster. On the 3rd of July in 1986, the Politburo
decided to sentence Bryukhanov to 10 years of imprisonment
for "serious errors and shortcomings in the work that
lead to the accident with severe consequences"... ....Generally Bryukhanov's original points of view haven't
changed much over the years but he carefully avoids making
definite statements, but still claims that the real truth
about Chernobyl will never be learnt because "they are
still concealing it" and he doesn't believe that the
disaster has taught anyone anything.
are other strong indicators that high level individuals have
been hiding important information and much additional research
needs to be done before drawing valid conclusions:
Valery Legasov, chief of the Chernobyl investigation committee,
committed suicide (or so it appears) by hanging
himself from the stairwell of his apartment on the second
anniversary of the disaster. According
to Wikipedia, "Reportedly, before his suicide, he
recorded himself on audiotape revealing previously undisclosed
facts about the catastrophe."
chief Chernobyl engineer Nikolai Fomin attempted suicide in
his jail cell. The
Chernobyl Trials, chernobylproject.blogspot.com,
11 October 2011 reports that: "The trial [of Chernobyl
suspects for criminal offenses] was supposed to be held on
the 24th of March 1987 but was postponed due to the
also arrested chief engineer Nikolai Fomin's suicide
attempt. In his cell, Fomin had broken his glasses and cut
his wrists but his attempt to take his own life was discovered
and his life was saved."
his Veterans Today article Comparing
the 1986 Chernobyl “nuclear disaster” with the 2001
Manhattan thermo-nuclear catastrophe, March 14,
2011, former Soviet intelligence officer Dimitri Khalezov suspects
Dr. Valery Legasov and General Vladimir. K.Pikalov (the Commander
of the Soviet Chemical Forces who became supreme military commander
in the Chernobyl area, and who died in 2003) of working for
foreign interests and supporting a cover-up.
The web site The
causes of Chernobyl accident are known (some web
pages in English, most in Russian) seems to offer important
perspectives related to the false flag issue. It is hosted by
"Dmitriev, Victor Markovich, Ph.D.," a man who claims
to have considerable nuclear reactor-related experience. [Editor's
Note: web page in Russian here,
translate.google.com English version here].
Dmitriev's web page "Myths
of Chernobyl" refutes many assertions that
I have seen in YouTube documentaries on Chernobyl. Dr. Dmitriev
questions the credibility and identity of the aforementioned
Dr. Boris Ivanov Gorbachev on his web page version
of Chernobyl disaster causes, but also highlights
the way Dr. Gorbachev questions the inconsistencies in documentaries
and other forms of research:
page is dedicated to the critical analysis of only one of
the theories about what caused the Chernobyl disaster - the
theory of B. I. Gorbachev. To start with, let us briefly summarise
the essence of Gorbachev’s numerous Internet articles.
All scientific and technical investigations of the causes
of the Chernobyl accident which have been carried out throughout
the past 20 years, are nonsensical, false or erroneous. The
initial information about the accident is inaccurate, garbled,
counterfeited and was partially destroyed by operational personnel
immediately after the emergency. And even experts themselves
are not to be believed, since half of them were operational
personnel, who would do anything to protect corporate interests.
the whole, this is a plot, going to the very top, involving
somebody’s "hairy hands", schemes of "the
family" and so forth, that at the time transferred nuclear
energy from [Minsredmash] (Ministry of Atomic Industry) into
the hands [Minenergo](Ministry of Power Engineering) only
to ruin the whole thing. They hid everything, deceived everybody,
including the IAEA, and moreover, in order to confuse the
general public, they came up with various silly "well
sounding" versions of the accident, which can be easily
An objective analysis of all the available data on the Chernobyl
accident can only be undertaken by independent scientists
from the Academy of Sciences (Ukraine), who are not interested
in behind-the-scenes politics, such as B. I. Gorbachev himself.
As well as by certain "competent authoritys" [sic]
(i.e. security bodies), that conducted their independent investigation,
but were not allowed to disclose the results of these investigations.
In fact, the entire truth is contained in the of witness statements
produced in evidence at court, however, it is also not permitted
to disclose them to the general public, so we never learn
After having thought over the situation and having analysed
all the available information, including accounts of eye-witnesses,
extracts from the scientific and technical reports and statements
of different scientists, as well as fiction, B. I. Gorbachev
developed his own theory of the Chernobyl disaster.
to his theory, the entire chronology of events of the Chernobyl
disaster is incorrect, so he created his own chronology, in
which all the events occurred earlier, with the single exception
of the pushing of the RPS knob. But explosion happened 25-30
seconds earlier than it was in reality.
reactor exploded because the operational personnel took the
absorbing rods out of the reactor core beyond any measure,
thus provoking, an uncontrollable power acceleration with
what are we supposed to make of all of this? Perhaps let us
begin by looking at what B. I. Gorbachev knows about reactor
physics in general, and in particular of the RBMK reactor.
For instance, why does he persistently confuse two principally
different concepts: of reactivity and reactivity margin .
map has a web page titled "Chernobyl
Secrets" in Russian, for which translate.google.com
provides the following translation::
maybe the Chernobyl accident was the result of sabotage, and
the defendants-time agents of foreign intelligence services?
And because everything is so secret? But no, the published
material operational and investigative work of the KGB of
Ukraine [EV], from which it follows that anything that was
what's the matter? Why is classified from the outset and not
declassified until now. The only answer that suggests itself:
it is therefore not to be ashamed of our Court and our Attorney
General's Office. Nothing else of interest in these materials
is not secret.
Russian text translations appear difficult to interpret because
they seem to be heavily "nuanced." People who grew
up under the Soviet police state system often dared not say
things directly, but instead utilized more subtle tools like
sarcasm, innuendo, prevarication, damning with faint praise,
showing inappropriate levels of enthusiasm, or dancing around
topics with wordiness. I am reminded of the Feb 1982 Playboy
magazine interview conducted with Polish solidarity union leader
Lech Walesa who said words to the effect that "Thank God
for the Communist Party and other big brother overseers or else
Poles would all be gunning each other down in the streets."
The sarcasm was so thick that even Westerners like myself "got
it." Then there was the old joke that when Pravda (of
the Soviet era) starting promoting potato recipes, it meant
the wheat cropped had failed once again. Therefore, when Dr.
Dmitriev raises the question "But maybe the Chernobyl accident
was the result of sabotage, and the defendants-time agents of
foreign intelligence services? And because everything is so
secret?" and then subsequently says "But no...The
only answer that suggests itself: it is therefore not to be
ashamed of our Court and our Attorney General's Office. Nothing
else of interest in these materials is not secret." I hope
that he is being sarcastic by suggesting that we can merrily
trust the KGB, Court, and Attorney General's Office to only
classify things that we don't need to know to rule out sabotage
by a foreign intelligence agency, but I am not completely sure.
I welcome emails from anyone who is fluent in Russian language,
culture, and cynicism who wants to help me with these kinds
primary purpose of this web page is to perform a basic Internet
reconnaissance and provide preliminary commentary that introduces
readers to important leads and ideas. At this stage, it is currently
beyond my scope to resolve the issue about who is more credible,
Dr. Gorbachev or Dr.
Dmitriev, or determine which one of them has a better
handle involving the physics of "reactivity" and "reactivity
margin" regarding the RBMK reactor. However, the contention
by Dr. Gorbachev that "All scientific and technical investigations
of the causes of the Chernobyl accident which have been carried
out throughout the past 20 years, are nonsensical, false or
erroneous. The initial information about the accident is inaccurate,
garbled, counterfeited and was partially destroyed by operational
personnel immediately after the emergency..." rings intuitively
true to me thus far in my research:
Evidence that Ronald Reagan and his Zionist handlers deliberately
sabotaged the Soviet Union as part of a longer term "disaster
capitalist" takeover plan.
includes the deliberate sabotage of Soviet pipelines and exacerbating
the Soviet quagmire in Afghanistan.
his autobiography, former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev
claims that the Chernobyl catastrophe was a major factor in
bringing down the Soviet Union. Many other sources claim that
Afghanistan was also a key factor. Probably both of these factors,
combined with the fact that many Russians felt they could not
economically compete with the West as a consequence of a tyrannical
and inefficient system deliberately fastened on them to
cripple them by WWI
German enemies, Jewish Bolsheviks, and City of London and
New York Jewish financiers (like the Rothschilds and Schiffs,
Communism by Frank Britton) -- all these factors
certainly provide a more complete answer.
Brzezinski was a key player in the Afghanistan quagmire for
the Soviet Union that persisted throughout the Reagan administration
and the Chernobyl catastrophe. This Polish-American served as
National Security Advisor for President Jimmy Carter, and continued
to exert a strong influence over American foreign policy in
the Reagan era. He was a top Bilderberger, Trilateral Commission
Director, Rockefeller and Rothschild operative, and even handler
of CIA asset Barack Hussein Obama II (aka Barry Soetero).
Brzszinski was also well-known for harboring a "legendary"
hatred of the Soviet Union. In fact, there is strong evidence
that he deliberately baited the Soviet Union into Afghanistan
to help bleed the country white. According to Zbigniew
Brzezinski: the Empire’s Adviser; The outrageous strategy
to destroy Russia by Arthur Lepic, voltairenet.org,
22 Oct 2004:
the French magazine Le Nouvel Observateur interviewed
Brzezinski in 1998, he admitted that the equipping of Bin
Laden’s anti-Soviet troops was before the Russian invasion
and was aimed at provoking its reaction: Le
Nouvel Observateur: Former CIA director, Robert Gates,
says in his memoirs: the American secret services assisted
Afghan mujahedeen six months before the Soviet invasion. By
that time, you were President Carter’s adviser and you
played a key role on this. Do you confirm it? Zbigniew
Brzezinski: Yes. According to the official version
of the story, the CIA began to assist mujahedeen in the year
1980, that is, after the invasion of the Soviet army against
Afghanistan on December 24, 1979. But the truth that remained
secret until today is quite different: it was on July 3, 1979
that President Carter signed his first order on the secret
assistance to Kabul’s pro-Soviet regime opponents. That
day I wrote a memorandum to the President in which I told
him that that assistance would cause the Soviet intervention
(...) we did not force the Russian intervention, we just,
conscientiously, increase the intervention possibilities. NO:
When the Soviets justified their intervention by affirming
they were fighting against a secret American interference
nobody believed them, though they were telling the truth.
Don’t you regret it? Z.
Brz.: Regret what? That secret operation was an excellent
idea. Its objective was to lead the Russian to the Afghan
trap, and you want me to regret it? The very same day the
Soviets crossed the Afghan border I wrote the following to
President Carter: «This is our chance to give Russia
its Viet Nam» (...). N.O.:
Aren’t you sorry either for favoring Islamic fundamentalism
and providing weapons and consultancies to future terrorists? ZBrz.:
What is the most important thing when you look at world history,
the Taliban or the fall of the Soviet empire? Some excited
Islamists or the liberation of Central Europe and the end
of the Cold War? 
is worth making an aside regarding how U.S.-Israeli. support
for mujahedeen fits into a longer term picture of U.S.-UK-Israeli-sponsored
false flag operations and other types of intrigues. Mossad-CIA-MI6
created "Al Qaeda" to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan,
and then later used "Al
Qaeda" as a boogeyman for 9/11 and the subsequent U.S.
invasion of Afghanistan. Later, "Al Qaeda" was also
used as a boogeyman in connection with Iraq resistance to the
U.S. occupation of Iraq despite the fact that Saddam Hussein
was a secular Arab nationalist who wanted to have little to
do as possible with the Sunni Muslim fundamentalist ideology
of Afghanistan's Taliban and "Al Qaeda." The U.S.
Government and its Zionist handlers subsequently performed another
amazing realpolitik gyration when they publicly supported"Al
Qaeda" in Libya to depose Muammar
Gaddafi and also to
bolster opposition against President Assad of Syria in 2012,
while simultaneously opposing alleged "Al Qaeda"
bases in Pakistan, to include angering
top Pakistani officials by killing innocent civilians reputed
to be "Al Qaeda" in drone attacks and staging
a bogus raid on an alleged Osama Bin Laden compound with SEAL
noted in Chapter
12, the real Osama Bin Laden, a long term CIA asset
and friend of the Bush family, probably died in December 2001.
Mossad-CIA-MI6 probably arranged the explosion that killed SEAL
Team 6 on board a helicopter to eliminate witnesses capable
of contradicting an official story that most astute observers
of intelligence operations refuse to believe anyway. But Oh,
what the heck, the U.S. Government and its Zionist New World
Order handlers have been soft-killing so many of our own troops
uranium poisoning for so long that maybe someone decided
it was time to try a different kick (besides
"suiciding" former West Point ethics professor Col
Ted Westhusing near Gen. David Petraueus' office in Baghdad
or firing a short small arms burst into CPL Pat Tillman's face)
by blowing up a group of airborne SEALS.
another interesting twist, according
to Wikipedia, "Brzezinski himself has denied the accuracy
of the [Le Nouvel Observateur] interview. According to Brzezinski,
an NSC working group on Afghanistan wrote several reports on
the deteriorating situation in 1979, but President Carter ignored
them until the Soviet intervention destroyed his illusions."
they say in the spy business, don't believe anything until it
is officially denied, so all the more reason to believe that
Brzezinski & Co. actively baited the Soviets into Afghanistan.
the Soviet Union collapsed, Zionist kleptocrats immediately
swarmed in to gobble up control of major former Russian and
Ukrainian assets. Mossad-CIA-MI6 had infiltrated Soviet society
to the point that it was able to harass the political opposition
of Boris Yeltsin, who served as a puppet for the Zionist kleptocrats.
I provide an overview of kleptocratic exploitation of Russia
below in my extract from the
Putin is Under Attackby Dr. David Duke.
but not least, Brzezinski harbored ill will not only towards
Russians, but also towards a large portion of the world's humanity.
He, along with Henry Kissinger and other agents of global shadow
government, created the Global 2000 document which calls for
the "depopulation" (some prefer the term "mass
murder") of a large portion of the world's population --
amounting to billions of people. Please see Leuren
Moret's comments from her "HAARP
and Mind Control" interview below.
If a man is willing to "depopulate" billions
of people, why would it bother him to "downgear" a
bit and "only" eliminate millions of people in the
Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus via a reactor "accident"?
Sabotage that covertly turns a nuclear power plant such
as Chernobyl into a "dirty nuclear bomb" is consistent
with many longstanding Israeli and U.S. polices involving wanton
use of nuclear devices and conducting major releases of dangerous
levels of radiation on civilian populations.
countries have openly and repeatedly engaged
in the first use of nuclear weapons
and thedestruction of operating nuclear power plants
as conscious and deliberate policies. Both countries have also
continuouslyengaged in dirty nuclear
warfare that generates millions of casualties a year,
to include damage to their own military forces and civilian
populations. As some examples, the U.S. exploded the first nuclear
devices on civilian populations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in
1945. According to Col Donn de Grand Pre in
his 25 Feb 2004 Alex Jones interview, satellites tracked
6-8 Israeli nuclear tipped missiles fired from the Negev desert
to Baghdad in Feb 1991. Mossad-CIA-MI6 very likely used mini-nukes
bring down the World Trade Center Towers on 9/11 and another
mini-nuke in the 2002 Bali bombing. The U.S. exploded
a neutron weapon over Baghdad Airport in the 2003 "Battle
of Baghdad," and Israel exploded DU
bombs in Lebanon in 2006. (Israel has exploded so many DU
weapons near its own civilian populations that Israeli men have
a serious problem of rising sterility. Leuren Moret commented
in her 28 October 2011 interview with Dr. James Fetzer: "The
sperm count in the last ten years has declined 40 percent in
Israeli men. It was already at least 20 percent in decline because
of nuclear technology, but at this rate, by 2020, just as Dr.
Busby has said, basically Israeli
men will be sterilized. At 20 percent sperm count, men are
considered to be sterile." See HAARETZ: “Study:
Quality of Israeli sperm down 40% in past decade”
by Ofri Ilani [11.05.09]). In the 1950's the U.S. led the arms
race by releasing massive amounts of nuclear material into the
atmosphere from bomb testing. It also seriously contaminated
major portions of the U.S. from routine nuclear power plant
releases. (See Secret
Fallout:Low-Level Radiation From Hiroshima
to Three-Mile Island by Dr. Ernest Sternglass).
Although depleted uranium from exploded munitions was known
to be a very dangerous "soft kill" weapon as early
as the 1940's, the U.S. and its allies commenced massive use
of DU in Persian Gulf War I in 1990-1991, giving catastrophically
macabre new meaning to the term "blowback." Despite
continuing feedback regarding DU's extremely toxic effects on
innocent civilians and U.S. military personnel, U.S., UK, and
Israeli authorities have only intensified and broadened
their use of DU over time, to include using it in small arms
munitions like 7.62 mm rounds on firing ranges. Over a million
U.S. veterans are permanently disabled from DU, and major portions
of Iraq and Afghanistan have permanently sickened civilian populations.
Tens of millions of people around the world suffer from increased
sterility, cancer, birth defects, and myriad other diseases
fostered by DU contamination. It has even influenced newborn
sex ratios in Los Angeles and other major U.S. cities. The
U.S. and Israel have also recklessly employed the Stuxnet virus
not only against Iranian nuclear facilities but also (in all
Fukushima reactors, serving as the main cause of the melt-downs.
Israeli Air Force pilots have knocked out operating
nuclear reactors in Iraq and Syria. Last, but not least, as
documented in my Mission
of Conscienceseries, Mossad-CIA-MI6 has been
more aggressively involved than any other espionage operations
in the world in conducting false flag operations. Their long
string of "credits' very likely include Oklahoma
City in 1995, NYC
and Washington, D.C. 9/11, Madrid
7/7, and Oslo-Utoya
7-22. Therefore, a sabotage operation at Chernobyl in 1986
would hardly have been out of character with everything that
I have mentioned in this very long paragraph.
There is overwhelming evidence that a longstanding global
dirty nuclear wars and even suicidal "Masada" and
"global depopulation"-type operations are being waged
by Zionists in control of nuclear industries against the global
arch-Zionist Dr. Edward Teller, often called "the Father
of the American H-Bomb" as well as a major inspiration
for the fictional movie character "Dr. Strangelove"
(and also a practicing Satanist according to a statement by
a Jewish woman reproduced on my 2011
nuclear crisis web page), deliberately had nuclear reactors
placed over America's worst earthquake fault lines and also
in established flood zones. He also condoned reactor designs
which accumulated spent fuel rods directly over reactors --
about as prudent as storing gasoline cans over burning stoves--
poisoning the atmosphere with chemtrails and dumping fluoride
waste into public drinking water.
self-chosen co-tribalists and co-religionists have brought us
other forms of extreme hazard and soft kill genocide, such as
Gulf catastrophe, Trojan Horse vaccine
additives, and even GMO foods (produced by the Jewish-run
Monsanto Corporation) which contain "Trojan Horses"
DNA that cause sterility and birth defects in second and third
generation test animals -- and which are being covertly inserted
into a wide variety of foods carried by grocery stores across
America today. Then let us not forget that massive stores of
biowar materials ready to be injected into the general public
around the world discovered by whisteblowers in 2009, and an
abortive attack on Ukraine which occurred later that same year.
on this web page I provide pro-doomsday quotes from Michael
Collins Piper's book The
GOLEM. I also list pro-global depopulation remarks
by Dr. Henry Kissinger and talk about Israel's wanton use of
DU and its cavalier air strikes against operating nuclear reactors,
all of which suggests that Teller was hardly alone in his stealth
war against humanity. Worse yet, we continue to get indications
from a wide variety of sources that the world is being heavily
influenced by a malevolent cabal with more than just a few screws
loose, for example, Commander's
veto sank Gulf buildup by Gareth Porter, Asia
Times, May 17, 2007 quotes former U.S. Central Command
Chief Admiral William J. "Fox" Fallon "...There
are several of us trying to put the crazies back in the box".
Putin attacks reckless US, thestandard.com, Feb
12, 2007 begins with "Russian President Vladimir Putin
has attacked the United States as a reckless power that has
made the world more dangerous by pursuing policies that have
led to war, ruin and insecurity." Paul:
GOP rhetoric on Iran "reckless", johnkingusa.blogs.cnn.com,
March 6, 2012, begins with "(CNN) – Ron Paul said
Tuesday that his rivals have `blown way out of proportion' the
Iranian nuclear threat and that their language is `reckless'
date of the Chernobyl Reactor 4 explosion, namely 26 April,
coincides with one of the most bitter and pivotal dates in Jewish
history, namely the inception of the Kiev pogrom of 1881.
often like to use false flag terror dates that have either historical
or Kabbalistic numerological significance. For example the Oslo
bombing and Utoya massacre on 22 July 2011 came 65 years to
the day after the bombing
of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem by Zionists in 1946.
Kiev is the capitol of Ukraine, and the Chernobyl complex had
the closest reactors. If Zionists were planning a revenge date
and location based upon the history of pogroms (1881 to 1919),
Chernobyl on 26 April would have to be at the very top of the
list. Chernobyl was the closest reactor complex to the site
of one of the most historically significant pogroms which took
place on the same day as the nuclear catastrophe. Jews have
a long historical memory, like to repeat historic dates, and
openly practice "Never Forgive, Never Forget" (This
slogan has been seen posted inside many Jewish synagogues).
is strong evidence of never-ending subterranean racial hatred
by Jews towards gentiles based upon ethnic genetic distance
models and other factors which motivates nuclear-related genocidal
level psychopathic Jews have a very long historical track record
of deliberately fostering mass exterminations of gentiles. In
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, the secular
historian Sir Edward Gibbon lists numerous Jewish atrocities.
In the Middle Ages, Jews dominated
the slave trade, remained notorious for loan-sharking, and
in the ritual murder of Christian children. Their bad behavior
eventually caused them to get
thrown out of every Western European country. In the 20th
century Jewish Bolsheviks were the prime leaders of the Soviet
Red Terror and GULAG systems that victimized over 60 million
people, as noted by Alexandr Solzhenitsyn. Jewish groups in
the United States have promoted more subtle forms of genocide
open borders, racial integration, and deindustrialization
programs. Open borders policies have been a major factor in
reducing the percentage of whites in the total population from
90% in the 1960's to less than 60% today. Racial integration
policies have destroyed the identity and cohesion required to
resist biological replacement or dilution. Deindustrialization
programs have severely reduced domestic economic carrying capacity
and the ability of America to internally scale up living standards.
(See further discussion of deindustrialization below).
The mass casualties inflicted by the Chernobyl catastrophe is
consistent with longstanding historical patterns of highly destructive
Jewish activity on many different levels.
most Americans have been so deeply brainwashed by controlled
national media and anarcho-libertarian ideology that they simply
cannot fathom how an alien group could gain control of strategic
bases of their society and consciously and systematically promulgate
long term policies that parasitically undermine the very nation
that has done more for Jews than any other country in history.
Elsewhere on this web page I discuss
animal models and ethnic-genetic distance concepts that
help to explain Jewish anomalies. Please
also see my discussion of Jewish Criminal Totalitarian Psychopathology
in the "Parasitism"
section of my "Mutualism
vs. Parasitism" article that is part of my "Resolving
Opposing Political and Economic Ideologies" series.
U.S. deeply penetrated the Soviet Union on an operational level
as a partner in many major covert projects, and therefore had
the operational capability to sabotage Chernobyl reactor 4 and
control the Soviet reaction.
expert Leuren Moret has testified that HAARP and the Project
Woodpecker mind control program were jointly developed
by both the U.S. and Soviet Union as secret partners,
probably orchestrated at a higher level by Rothschilds / City
of London. Weather warfare and mind control operations have
only intensified after the Chernobyl disaster, utilizing
HAARP facilities located in the U.S. and among many "western
allies" as well as in the former Soviet Union. The U.S.
utilized electro-magnetic mind control technologies to induce
the surrender of Iraqi soldiers during Persian Gulf War I (please
see the transcript of the 23 July 2007 interview "HAARP
and Mind Control" by Alfred Webre with Leuren Moret).
The U.S. Government also attempts to affect the behavior of
U.S. citizens by delivery pulse messages via cell towers, televisions,
and other electronic devices. Please see the description of
of Silence" technology described in Chapter
39 of my Mission of Conscience
series. The U.S. has been run by globalist bankers who
ultimately work for themselves against the best interests
of the general population of the United States (please see Chapter
33 Wall Street Coup de Etat and Banker False Flags
Against America). They covertly funded and supported the
Bolshevik regime, and also orchestrated its downfall once it
had run its course. They have a long track record of utilizing
both covert as well as overt methods on a scale unparalleled
in the history of mankind to ruthlessly manipulate the general
public in Russia as well as the United States.
sabotage fits in with ruthless "negative sum game"
and "go for broke" grand strategic behavior of the
Rothschilds / City of London / Mossad-CIA-MI6 and associates
consistent with landmark events that unfolded both before and
the time of Chernobyl, Jewish-controlled
Wall Street ignored urgent warnings by leading academics across
America that the country had been suffering industrial decline
ever since the 1960's, and major policy changes had to be taken
to pull America out of the tail-spin. In June 1980 Business
Week sounded the alarm with its cover story "The Reindustrialization
of America." This was followed by a long series of books
and studies explicitly addressing America's competitiveness
problems. For example, in 1985 Harvard Business School professor
R. Scott and his coeditor George C. Lodge, published U.S.
Competitiveness in the World Economy (Boston: Harvard Business
School Press, 1985). Scott and his colleagues went on a national
road tour, and the working papers version of this book which
explained the nature of decline in great detail was circulated
widely around the country among business school organizations
and top consulting firms. In 1999, Eamonn Fingleton published
of Hard Industries:
Why Manufacturing, Not the Information Economy, Is the key to
Future Prosperity, almost like a last call before America
plunged into its Central Asia/Middle Eastern military adventures
post-9/11 designed to grab natural resources and destroy real
or perceived enemies of Israel.
Jewish power elite was not only served notice in the1980's regarding
the true underlying nature of America's economic decline, and
what needed to be done immediately to stage a turnaround
-- that is, if they valued a peaceful productive economy
vs. one based on deception, exploitation, aggressive war, and
intrigue -- but as another important form of notice, the Grace
Commission Report presented to Congress in January 1984
explained that the longstanding patterns of steadily increasing
government spending and growth in debt obligations were unsustainable.
of America implied rehabilitation of the productive white middle
class, a reversal of the open borders policies with Third World
countries, and a re-imposition of at least modest tariffs and
other trade barriers against foreign slave labor exploitation.
Although many contemporary libertarians (like Lew Rockwell and
Dr. Thomas DiLorenzo with the Mises Institute) disdain tariffs
as a coercive measure to stimulate reinvestment in domestic
industry, tariffs had in fact played a major role for much of
the 19th century to help America build its industry and raise
its living standards to the highest level in the world..
of taking a corrective course of action that would restore American
productivity and get government spending and debt growth under
control, major Jewish groups continued to push for more open
borders and racial integration that continued to erode the white
middle class, and continued to push for more outsourcing of
American industry to China and other ultra low cost labor countries.
They also sanctioned continued growth in government spending,
debt obligations, and escalating growth in Wall Street derivatives
(which billionaire Warren Buffett once called "Weapons
of Mass financial destruction"). Last, but not least, they
continued their nonstop scheming for ways to make themselves
relatively stronger by ruthlessly crippling or destroying all
real or perceived competition, a very nasty and spiteful "negative
sum game" approach to life.
without taking the aforementioned recommended corrective measures,
there was really only one path left for America, and that would
involve the conquest of natural resources around the world to
compensate for the decline in production of tradeable quality
goods at home. It would also entail continuous intimidation
of foreign countries to defend the dollar as a global currency
(despite ever higher balance of trade deficits that weaken the
dollar), the use of ruthless negative sum game tactics towards
all real or perceived competitors to maintain relative strength,
the development of a police state to curb domestic dissent as
the economic pie inevitably continues to shrink due to loss
of domestic industry, and the increased use of false flag terror
and other forms of deception to control people through fear.
than six years before Chernobyl, Henry Kissinger signed
off on the Global 2000 depopulation document (discussed in the
Leuren Moret interview contained below) while serving in the
Carter Administration that preceded Reagan. Only four years
after Chernobyl, the U.S. and its allies commenced the massive
use of depleted uranium despite its well-known genocidal
effects on U.S. military personnel and millions of innocent
civilians, and the fact that America was fighting a Third World
country against whom depleted uranium munitions were completely
unnecessary to win. Unlike U.S. vs. U.S.S.R. bomb test competition
in the 1950's and 1960's, no one could invoke any kind of alibi
that there was some kind of competitive pressure to continually
test and "upgrade" DU use. Also, with the implosion
of the Soviet Union, there was no longer any need to maintain
such a large "guns vs. butter" military-industrial
complex as opposed to rebuilding "butter vs. guns"
civilian industry. Reduction in Force to re-gear industry for
civilian priorities had always been a grand American tradition
after every major American war up until World War II, but America
continued to move in the opposite direction.
to talk show host Alex Jones, by the late 1980's the U.S. military
was already conducting domestic pro-police state drills in which
"demonstrators" were treated like insurgents. On Sept.
11, 1991 George H. W. Bush delivered his infamous "New
World Order" speech which was an open slap in the face
to traditional American values. I have listed a number of other
important benchmarks in my chronology listed below. It is worth
adding the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak
Rabin on November 4, 1995. Many observers strongly suspect
that this murder was instigated by hardline members of Mossad
(which runs the Israeli government behind the scenes) who felt
that Rabin had become too "accommodative."
retrospect, a nuclear false flag at Chernobyl in 1986 may have
been a final "crossing of the Rubicon" that totally
committed the Rothschild Crime Family /City of London / Israel
/ Mossad-CIA-MI6 towards the use of "negative sum game"
tactics and other ruthless approaches -- at the expense of "reindustrialization"
and all other more humane, honest, and peaceful approaches --
to achieve their objectives over the next several decades.I say "Crossing of the Rubicon" because while
it is true that the aforementioned power elite had promoted
many very evil "negative sum game" policies in the
past that served their interests, such as the Balfour Agreement
that unnecessarily prolonged WWI past 1916 and severely weakened
and destabilized many leading European societies (such as Russia,
Germany, Austria, and Italy), or supporting the Bolshevik takeover
of Russia that cost the lives of tens of millions of people,
or creating the Morgenthau Plan which threatened the lives of
over ten million Germans after World War II, one might argue
that elite Jews were in a strong enough position in 1986 to
"repent and reset." They could have taken their poker
chips off the table, that is, supported corrective actions that
would have reversed America's industrial decline and the liquidation
of the white middle class, and still could have finessed a secure
position for themselves at the top of American society for many,
many decades to come.
this is not the nature of the beast. We are talking about master
criminals at the top who have committed so many crimes on so
many levels for so long -- to include running the global drug
trade, international "blood
banker" and "economic
hit man" operations, and unsustainable
fiat money and fractional reserve central banking systems
-- that they must have felt that they had a perpetual tiger
by the tail. For such individuals, intensifying low cunning
and ruthlessness -- to include forever feeding their addiction
for quick gain through financial speculation, keeping their
enemies off balance with fear tactics, and "kicking problems
upstairs" by creating ever larger and more monopolistic
organizations -- these are the only playbooks they really understand
and have a talent for executing.
patterns of extremely callous, malevolent, and reckless covert
behavior surrounding the BP-Gulf crisis, sabotage of Iranian
nuclear facilities, and the Fukushima catastrophe point to Mossad-CIA-MI6
and their handlers as the most likely suspects for Chernobyl
false flag sabotage.
BP-Gulf Catastrophe clearly demonstrated the strong grip that
British Petroleum and its Rothschild Crime Family / City of
London / UK Monarchy controllers have had on the Obama Administration
and its subsidiary the U.S. Department of Energy. Please see
strong evidence of this on my BP-Gulf
summary web page. I also list articles that describe
the mind-boggling arrogance and abusiveness that British Petroleum
demonstrated towards Gulf Coast residents by wantonly deploying
the highly toxic (and unnecessary) dispersant Corexit.
Fukushima catastrophe demonstrates the
strong likelihood that Mossad-CIA-MI6 and their ultimate handlers
used HAARP and the Stuxnet virus to sabotage Japan's nuclear
industry as a follow on to the openly admitted sabotage of Iranian
nuclear facilities. CIA,
Department of Energy Behind Program to Attack Iran Computers
Officials Say Move 'Preferable Alternative to Airstrikes'
by Jason Ditz, antiwar.com, June 01, 2012, states:
continue to pour in about the Obama Administration’s
decision to authorize a hostile computer hacking campaign
against Iran, one of the first decisions he made upon taking
most public of the attacks, Stuxnet, which was also an embarrassment
since it quickly spread beyond the Iranian nuclear program
attacking industrial computers across the planet, was created
by the CIA, with the help of the Department of Energy’s
Idaho National Laboratory.
were also involved in the creation of the Stuxnet worm,
and while this fact has been floating around over a year,
officials are just now getting around to confirming it.
officials have defended the move, saying they believed it
was a “preferable alternative to airstrikes,”
but the enormous damage such viruses have caused when they
inevitably move beyond the target and start attacking computers
worldwide suggest it isn’t exactly a panacea either.
the damage of the Stuxnet fiasco, the Obama Administration
has continued the program. Though it has yet to be confirmed,
it is widely believed that the Flame Virus, an advanced surveillance
program, is also a product of this scheme.
— From his first months in office, President
Obama secretly ordered increasingly sophisticated attacks
on the computer systems that run Iran’s
main nuclear enrichment facilities, significantly expanding
America’s first sustained use of cyberweapons, according
to participants in the program.
Obama decided to accelerate the attacks — begun in the
Bush administration and code-named Olympic Games — even
after an element of the program accidentally became public
in the summer of 2010 because of a programming error that
allowed it to escape Iran’s Natanz plant and sent it
around the world on the Internet. Computer security experts
who began studying the worm, which had been developed by the
United States and Israel,
gave it a name: Stuxnet.
a tense meeting in the White House Situation Room within days
of the worm’s “escape,” Mr. Obama, Vice
President Joseph R. Biden Jr. and the director of the Central
Intelligence Agency at the time, Leon E. Panetta, considered
whether America’s most ambitious attempt to slow the
progress of Iran’s nuclear efforts had been fatally
we shut this thing down?” Mr. Obama asked, according
to members of the president’s national security team
who were in the room.
it was unclear how much the Iranians knew about the code,
and offered evidence that it was still causing havoc, Mr.
Obama decided that the cyberattacks should proceed. In the
following weeks, the Natanz plant was hit by a newer version
of the computer worm, and then another after that. The last
of that series of attacks, a few weeks after Stuxnet was detected
around the world, temporarily took out nearly 1,000 of the
5,000 centrifuges Iran had spinning at the time to purify
account of the American and Israeli effort to undermine the
nuclear program is based on interviews over the past 18
months with current and former American, European and Israeli
officials involved in the program, as well as a range of outside
experts. None would allow their names to be used because the
effort remains highly classified, and parts of it continue
to this day.
officials gave differing assessments of how successful the
sabotage program was in slowing Iran’s progress toward
developing the ability to build nuclear
weapons. Internal Obama administration estimates say the
effort was set back by 18 months to two years, but some experts
inside and outside the government are more skeptical, noting
that Iran’s enrichment levels have steadily recovered,
giving the country enough fuel today for five or more weapons,
with additional enrichment . . .
her 18 July 2011 interview titled Fukushima
and the Global Danger, hosted by Dr. James Fetzer,
Leuren Moret explained sabotage programs aimed at both Iran
and Japan. The following are two transcript excerpts:
Leuren Moret: ...The U.S. and the Department
of Energy and Dr. Steven Chu and Dr. Koonan are controlling
the emergency response and they are controlling what TEPCO
does. And the documents that are being released jointly in
Japan by the Japanese government and the U.S. government --
actually a friend of mine hacked one of the maps of contamination
in northern Japan and underneath the top layer was the map,
was the same map, but it said "The Department of Energy."
So it is the Department of Energy that is coming up with the
maps, the numbers, measuring -- Dr. James Fetzer: That is the U.S. Department
of Energy? L. Moret: The U.S. Department of Energy is
running the whole thing. Dr. Fetzer: And it appears to me a cover-up,
right? A massive suffocation of real information about what
is going on. L. Moret: Oh it is the biggest cover-up about
the most serious nuclear issue that has ever happened in the
history of the world. And it will certainly contribute to
a major extinction. A genocide of, oh, many, many people in
the northern hemisphere...
L. Moret: ...The Stuxnet, virus, as I have
mentioned, before the break, was developed by a U.S team aided
by a Siemens team from Germany. The reason Siemens had to
be involved was because of all of the firewalls and the privacy
and everything of their computer language, and it would have
taken much longer for the U.S. team to unravel it or to get
around the protective software. Or they might not have even
been able to do it. So it had to be co-developed, and what
we know is that the U.S. gave the Stuxnet virus to Israel
and Israel delivered it to the Natanz facility where the centrifuges,
about 800 of them, were just destroyed by the virus. And that
virus appeared in Japan in October. It was discovered that
something like 62 computers were infected with it. However,
what is very strange is that in September of 2010, even though
the governor of Fukushima Province had prohibited MOX fuel
in any reactors in that prefecture, the MOX fuel, which is
a mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide fuel was covertly
put into reactor number three at the Fukushima plant. And
in November or December an Israeli security team from Dimona,
which is the nuclear weapons facility in Israel, put a new
security system in that particular Fukushima I Daiichi 1 plant,
and they left shortly before the earthquake and tsunami caused
all the problems, and they must have been the ones who introduced
the Stuxnet virus while they were installing a new security
system. Dr. Fetzer: So who was responsible for this
again, Leuren? L. Moret: Well, the Israelis delivered it,
but --. Dr. Fetzer: So there was an Israeli aspect
to this. L. Moret: Yes. Dr. Fetzer: And the MOX fuel was a bad thing
to introduce here too. L. Moret: Well it was already prohibited
by the governor of the Prefecture in 2002. So obviously they
were sneaking it in, and the Stuxnet virus was already in
Japan in October, and the Israelis were there in November
or December or about that time. And so the whole thing was
a big set up. I mean all the forensic evidence is there. It
is irrefutable. The earthquake was a magnitude 9.0. They never
had a magnitude 9.0 earthquake reported in 1,200 years in
web page provides additional articles that support
Ms. Moret's facts and analysis. Unusual seismic readings and
follow on patterns of earthquakes strongly suggest the 3-11
earthquake was induced by HAARP.
government agencies and controlled national media in Japan,
North America, and Europe have refused to adequately address
the continuing and very dangerous radiation hazards to general
populations in these areas, thereby inhibiting the public's
ability to take the
most elementary individual and group protective measures.
They are passively allowing tens of millions of people to suffer
myriad radiation-related ailments, to include massive upsurges
in infant mortality and permanent damage to human gene pools.
Dance of Mass Death and Genetic Destruction" Week-by-week
Fukushima radiation and fallout projections and companion articles
illustrates the extreme seriousness of the continuing catastrophe
that is being ignored.
level of murderous criminality and total recklessness implied
by all of the aforementioned covert activities is breathtaking.
Once covert operatives unleash a Stuxnet virus, or damage reactors
with HAARP-induced earthquakes, they have no idea how far the
damage will go. Once a reactor goes into meltdown and produces
corium, this can go supercritical and generate an atomic explosion,
which in turn might strip away the cooling systems and personnel
support for other reactors and nuclear fuel located within a
given area, causing them to eventually go into meltdown as well.
Even without an explosion, the fission products of corium can
so heavily contaminate an area that no one can adequately service
other nuclear facilities to prevent other meltdowns. In other
words, there is no way to predict what sequence of meltdowns
might take place, how far each meltdown might go, and whether
or not enough meltdowns might take place to cause major extinction
events across our planet, not to mention horrendous levels of
birth defects, dysfunction, disease, and "genomic instability"
among those who do not die off right away.
view of all these incredibly grave risks, we have to ask what
kinds of people would go ahead and impose them on the rest of
humanity? In addition, we might also ask what kind of electorate,
media, and security services would tolerate "leaders"
willing to act in such a horrendously irresponsible and destructive
so-called "power elites" in the U.S., UK, and Israel
have not changed significantly between the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown
and the 2011 Fukushima meltdowns. Their pattern of high level
criminal behavior surrounding Fukushima has been so extreme
and pervasive that one would almost be surprised if this criminality
had not been expressed at least once
before at a place like Chernobyl. 2011-07-07Stuxnet:
Cyber Warfare by Israel & The U.S.(video) (13:22)
following is an overview of suspicious events, predictions,
and alerts that are covered in the Mission
of Conscienceseries or in subsequent alert campaigns
by Capt. Eric May, Maj. William Fox, Dr. James Fetzer and
November 22, 1963.John F. Kennedy likely assassinated
in a Mossad-CIA operation.See Final
Judgment by Michael Collins Piper. JFK attempted to thwart Israel ’s atomic bomb program,
and became the last U.S. President to take a serious stand
against the Zionist state.
Illustration from 20 April 2009 Wired Magazine
Stonehenge: Monumental Instructions for the Post-Apocalypse"
by Randall Sullivan. Caption "The Georgia Guidestones
may be the most enigmatic monument in the US: huge slabs
of granite, inscribed with directions for rebuilding
civilization after the apocalypse. Only one man knows
who created them—and he's not talking. Photo:
Suspicious Event: March 22, 1980: According to the 20
April 2009 Wired Magazine article "American
Stonehenge: Monumental Instructions for the Post-Apocalypse"
by Randall Sullivan, the "The team that built the [Georgia]
Guidestones didn't know who was financing the project—just
that it was the biggest monument in county history... The
unveiling on March 22, 1980, was a community celebration.
Congress member Doug Barnard, whose district contained Elberton,
addressed a crowd of 400 that flowed down the hillside and
included television news crews from Atlanta..." As discussed
36 about the swine flu false flag pandemic of 2009, or
"U.N. Agenda 21," the Guidestones suggest that global
depopulation is desirable by calling for "1. Maintain
humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature."
Suspicious Event 1980: Future Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu publishes his first “global terror”
themed book titled:International
Terrorism: Challenge and Response . Netanyahu becomes
a leader among Israelis in developing “Global War on
Terror” ideology for Western consumption.
11, 1990 (exactly 11 years before the 9-11 attacks) President
George H. W. Bush makes his “Towards A New World Order”
speech before Congress.
Suspicious Event: Friday,
February 26, 1993 Explosion rocks WorldTradeCenterTowers , allegedly kills seven and blamed on terrorists.
Some sources claim radiation found at site. Former FBI Agent
Ted Gunderson noted: “The FBI not only knew in advance
of the car bombing of the WorldTradeCenter in February 1993, they furnished the ingredients
for the bomb (The New York Times, October 28, 1993—source
29 Aug 2003 letter to Ashcroft)
Suspicious Event:Wednesday, April 19, 1995.Oklahoma
City bombing. Former FBI agent Ted
Gunderson has noted: “An inside investigator informed
me that at least 11 other individuals, besides McVeigh and
Nichols, were involved in the Oklahoma City bombing.” In his book The Judas Goats, Michael Collins Piper
identifies Mossad involvement in what was used by the Clinton administration to try to discredit
American patriotic/militia movements.
Suspicious Event: 1996.Arch-Zionist Murdoch media firm Fox releases
movie Independence Day,
which anticipates key events in 9-11 attack five years later.
Suspicious Event: 1996:Richard Perle, leader of a study group,
along with fellow neo-con Zionist co-tribalists Douglas Feith
and David Wurmser,co-authored “A
Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm,”
for Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu which trashes
every principle of traditional American conservative foreign
policy in favor of nakedly aggressive, pre-emptive war as
an acceptable tool to accomplish Israeli/U.S. objectives.
Suspicious Event:1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (Friday,
August 7, 1998), hundreds of people
were killed in simultaneous car bomb explosions
at the United Statesembassies in the
capital cities of Dar es
Kenya blamed on Bin
Laden and Al Qaeda. In fact, it is this incident, and not
9/11, for which Bin Laden is on the FBI wanted list.However, given that Bin Laden was once a CIA asset
in the Afghan-Soviet War, the extremely close ties between
the Bush crime family and the Bin Laden family identified
in Michael Moore’s documentary Fahrenheit
911, and the fact that on the day of the London 7-7-2005
terror bombing a former Mossad chief would suggest
that the 1998 bombings started the war on terror, these explosions
become very suspicious.Note also that the explosion in Saudi
Arabia was incapable of shearing off
the edifice of the adjacent building, unlike the alleged bomb
that allegedly took off 1/3 of the face of the Murrah building
in Oklahoma City in 1995.
According to the 16 June 2008 Wayne
Madsen Report: "WMR learned from US intelligence
and customs agents that the 1998 terrorist bombings of the
US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
had a Houston connection. The terrorist attacks were blamed
on Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda. The two trucks used in the
two East Africa bombings were stolen vehicles that were shipped
from Houston via Guatemala. In addition, the bombs used passed
though the same Guatemalan smuggling route. In 1998, Israel's
Mossad and Guatemala's intelligence services continued to
enjoy a close relationship and the Central American nation's
successive military juntas could count on the support of the
American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) and other
Israeli lobbying organizations in Washington."
Suspicious Event: September
2000.(exactly 1 year before the 9-11 attacks)
White paper “Project for a New American Century: Rebuilding
America’s Defenses” published by the same Jewish
Neo-cons in control of American foreign policy that published
“A Clean Break:
A New Strategy for Securing the Realm” in 1996.
Called for pre-emptive invasions and use of nukes.Aggressive war and other behaviors punishable as war
crimes at Nuremburg are “OK” as long as they benefit
and the U.S.
Suspicious Event:Thursday, October 12, 2000.Bombing of U.S.S. Cole, exactly 333
days before 9-11-2001.According to the July 14, 2008 Wayne Madsen Report:
“A CIA source who worked with [former FBI team leader
John P. O'Neill] in the New York Joint Terrorism Task Force
previously told WMR that the Cole was attacked in
a "false flag" operation by a Popeye cruise missile
fired from an far over-the-horizon Israeli submarine.
Suspicious Event on Tuesday, September 11, 2001Two World Trade Center Towers and WTC 7 are brought
down by controlled demolitions (and possibly even mini-nukes
to create extreme pulverization of all structural materials)and Pentagon hit by a likely cruise missile, all likely
orchestrated by high level U.S. Government and Mossad insiders
to justify invasions of Afghanistan, Iraq and other objects
of imperial lust in the Middle East on behalf of OIL (Oil,
Israel, and Logistical Bases).As an interesting coincidence, the WorldTradeCenter
towers were constructed to resemble the number “11”
in the New York Skyline.The flight numbers of the planes that hit the towers
are divisible by “11,” as are the dates of most
subsequent “Al Qaeda terror” bombings.The number “11” is a significant number
in various occult numerologies, to include ancient Chaldean
numerology and subsequent Kabbalistic numerology, utilized
by various secret societies and esoteric groups as Kabbalistic
Jews, Zionists, the Mossad, Masons, and Skull & Bones
members like George Bush and other major Establishment leaders.
October 11, 2002, the United
States Congress passed the “Authorization for Use of
Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002,” giving
U.S. President George W. Bush the authority to attack Iraq
if Saddam Hussein did not give up his Weapons of Mass Destruction
(WMDs).”Congress completely copped out on its Constitutional
duty to be the ultimate war-making body, allowing Bush dictatorial
power to attack another country on flimsy pretexts, and giving
him freer reign to conduct covert and false flag operations.
Suspicious Event on
Saturday, October 12, 2002 First Bali
Bombing.Exactly one day after Bush given dictatorial
war-making powers, and two years after the U.S.S. Cole attack.Called “Asia’s 9/11,”
reportedly killing 202, was blamed on Muslim militants by
Australian government to justify internal “Patriot Act”-type
repressive measures and alliance with U.S.
in Middle Eastern interventions.Retired Australian intelligence analyst Joe Vialls
called it a likely CIA-Mossad false flag attack that used
Suspicious Event on April 5-7, 2003: Battleof Baghdad cover-up. The use of at least one neutron weapon at the
BaghdadAirport and the deaths of hundreds of
American soldiers and Marines killed in action permanently
thrown down the memory hole.
Event in November 2003:CONPLAN 8022-02. According to Wikipedia: “The plan
was reportedly completed in November 2003, resulting in a
preemptive and offensive strike capability. The main plan
involves the preemptive use of tactical
nuclear strikes (mini-nukes) on deep-ground rocket/bomb installations, computer
viruses, and radar
disruption technology.”The military had already gone first-use nuclear with
the use of one or more neutron weapons in the Battle of Baghdad,
not to mention long-standing use of depleted uranium weapons.Now the Establishment is preparing the military to
use nukes in a possible war on Iran and elsewhere to help make up for U.S.
manpower shortages in an all-volunteer system.
Suspicious Event November 21, 2003.Commander of U.S. Armed Forces in the Iraqi invasion,
Gen Tommy Franks, stated that “the worst thing that
could happen” is if terrorists acquire and then use
a biological, chemical or nuclear weapon that inflicts heavy
that happens, Franks said, “... the Western world, the
free world, loses what it cherishes most, and that is freedom
and liberty we’ve seen for a couple of hundred years
in this grand experiment that we call democracy.”He also said, “It means the potential of a weapon
of mass destruction and a terrorist, massive, casualty-producing
event somewhere in the Western world – it may be in
States of America –
that causes our population to question our own Constitution
and to begin to militarize our country in order to avoid a
repeat of another mass, casualty-producing event. Which in
fact, then begins to unravel the fabric of our Constitution."
[Author’s Note: It is interesting that British invasions
of the 19th century, to include the burning of Washington, D.C. buildings by British troops in the War
of 1812, did not generate any talk about unraveling the fabric
of our Constitution.What is so different now?].
Event on Thursday, March 11, 2004:Subway bombing in Madrid kills hundreds.
Originally blamed on Basque separatists, later on Al Qaeda.
Global media says not a question of if, but when, another
9-11 on U.S.
soil, possibly involving “suitcase nukes” missing
from the former Soviet Union...[this page continued here].
the summer of 2011 the Ft. Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Nebraska
was deliberately flooded Please see my The
Great 2011 American Nuclear Facility Crises
web page for
proof that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, acting on instructions
from malefactors at higher levels, timed dam releases to cause
major floods. My chronology includes commentary by experts or
astute observers such as Dr Tom Burnett and Arnie Gunderson. If
Ft. Calhoun and its spent fuel pool had gone into melt-down, this
could have rendered major parts of the Midwest and eastern United
States permanently uninhabitable for the next several hundred
years. Perhaps we will never know until secret documents are declassified
or certain whistle-blowers step forward if there had in fact been
a deliberate Mossad-CIA-MI6 effort to bring Fukushima and Chernobyl-type
melt-downs to the U.S. in summer 2011 that somehow got thwarted
by various counterintelligence efforts behind the scenes. But
one thing is for sure, this threat has not gone away.
to Energy News at least three quarters of American nuclear power
plants are seriously leaking. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
is re-certifying for another 20 years many nuclear power plants
that already exceed their planned service lives (typically about
40 years) and show serious signs of deterioration and obsolescence.
The U.S. government is making no effort to move massive quantities
of spent fuel rods in America that are stored in a very hazardous
locations just like the fuel rods stored over reactors at Fukushima.
In other words, there is already a strong case for massive criminal
negligence at the highest levels of the U.S. Government even without
any more melt-downs beyond Three Mile Island in America. Worse
yet, according to Leuren Moret, the U.S. Department of Energy
has played a key role in overseeing the Japanese government's
response to Fukushma. Punchline:
The continued failure to properly identify, arrest, and
punish the malefactors behind Chernobyl and Fukushima leaves them
at large to sabotage even more reactors in other parts of the
world in the future, to include in the U.S., UK, France, Russia,
and Ukraine (once again).
False Flag Characteristics
flag operations typically reflect major geopolitical interests
covertly at war with their own host society or other countries.
Motive: The Net Result of a Very Strange Mixture of Covert Cold
War Alliances and Rivalries Involving the U.S., U.S.S.R., and
Rothschilds / City of London / Israel Suddenly Presented an
Opportunity Where It Was Advantageous to Sabotage Chernobyl
The Trail Of On-Line War Games, enochered.wordpress.com.
Stuxnet computer virus, which was written by Mossad and the
CIA and probably with some input from the UK arm of the main
Global Terrorist Grouping, MI6, was designed to create disastrous
problems in the computer system, which was built by Siemens
in Germany and installed in the Iranian Bushehr Nuclear Plant.
Iranians, whom despite a history of problems with the US, without
a trace of irony, appear to have named the plant after the family
whom have created many of those problems. Anyway, the Iranians
were evidently, more than capable of dealing with the Virus
and after treating it, were brave enough to launch the Power
Plant with no apparent problems.
contagion spread world-wide, infecting millions of computer
controlled systems in China and other industrialised countries.
is, according to many observers, evidence that the Fukushima
catastrophic loss of control of the computer operated cooling
system, was due to Stuxnet infection.
are now in the middle of a total News blackout concerning the
continuing Japanese nightmare. The remains of the reactors cannot
be approached by workers because of the radio-active emissions
and they are in a state of near collapse. They house hundreds
of tons of spent radio-active fuel rods, which, should the buildings
collapse, will start an unstoppable chain-reaction where they
fall. The pessimists are talking of the evacuation of Tokyo
and maybe the entire island.
have no way of knowing how many other disastrous events may
have been caused by Stuxnet. Of what we can be sure is that
this kind of computer terrorism did not start with Stuxnet.
are emerging of attacks which were carried out by the Reagan
regime as long ago as the 1980's, in the infancy of computer
programming. Reagan, we are told, was obsessed with destroying
The Soviet Union. Francois Mitterrand, the, President of France,
revealed the contents of the so-called “Farewell Dossier”
to Reagan, which contained information which had been supplied
by a KGB Agent Colonel Vladimir I. Vetrov.
Russians were in need of computer programmes, which were essential,
to control the pumping of gas from Siberia. The Russians were
seeking help in Canada.
US interceded with Canada to “doctor” the computer
chips, with what would now be called virus, in order to provoke
erratic behaviour, which would interfere with the smooth running
of installations in which they were installed.
object was to destroy the Soviet economy, through the destruction
of its industrial base. What they in fact achieved was a series
of massive explosions on the Siberian Gas Pipeline.
Vladimir I. Vetrov, appears to have suffered a catastrophic
attack of madness, during which he attacked his girlfriend,
he was executed in 1983, after his duplicity had come to light,
by which time Mikhail Gorbachev was in charge of the Soviet
was the man whom was selected to oversee the dismantling of
the USSR. He quickly signed treaties with Reagan and started
to create an atmosphere which encouraged the Soviet controlled
Lech Walesa to kick off in Poland, in a “Communist Block
Spring” all of it, as with the “Arab Spring”
ideal “false flag” event to take everybody’s
eye off the political ball was Chernobyl. It would be dumb to
believe that the US, which had been in league with the Soviets
forever, were not aware that the Iron Curtain was being raised
for a new show.
intent had always been to blend the Soviets with the West and
arrangements had been made to make sure that all the wealth
and resources ended up in the same hands. Yeltsin was waiting
in the wings to see to that.
had already placed coded “chips” into the computer
system of the Soviets, this would imply that Chernobyl, like
many other facilities would have been under the control of the
US Intelligence Agencies. It would not be too great a leap to
suppose that the same ghouls, whom were prepared to destroy
Iranian Nuclear Power Plants and may well have caused the breakdown
at Fukushima, would baulk at sabotaging Chernobyl. 2012-04-13Was
Chernobyl Revenge for the Russian Woodpecker? by
Zen Gardner, zengardner.com. [Ed. Note: Please also see the
Leuren Moret interview titled HAARP
and Mind Control below which explains how the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
were secret partners on the Wood Pecker and
HAARP projects. A discussion of HAARP and Mind Control is relevant
to Chernobyl to the extent that it not only illustrates a higher
level of influence over both U.S. and U.S.S.R. societies than
what one might surmise by simply focusing on their official
government leaders alone, but also fits into a broader pattern
involving the global depopulation agenda, the wanton use of
"dirty nukes," and other ruthless manipulation methods
through which a psychopathic globalist elite demonstrates its
utter contempt for all humanity outside themselves].
what we know now about Mossad’s stuxnet virus capabilities
and the outright sabotage of the Fukushima reactors, amongst
others, we need to revisit Chernobyl.
ran across this connection when studying the various HAARP type
facilities around the world, all of which were preceded by the
Russian “Woodpecker” phenomenon in the 70's and
80's. Interestingly enough, the giant “Steel Yard”
as NATO called it, is located in Chernobyl, Ukraine. Within
the “exclusion zone” of the now defunct Chernobyl
then was this reactor blown up? Retaliation? See for yourself.
Coincidence? Or a Deliberate Sabotage!
The Russian Woodpecker was a notorious
Soviet radio signal that could be heard on the shortwave radio
bands worldwide between July 1976 and December 1989. It sounded
like a sharp, repetitive tapping noise, at 10 Hz, giving rise
to the “Woodpecker” name. The random frequency
hops disrupted legitimate broadcast, amateur radio, utility
transmissions, and resulted in thousands of complaints by
many countries worldwide. The signal was long believed to
be that of an over-the-horizon radar (OTH) system. This theory
was publicly confirmed after the fall of the Soviet Union,
and is now known to be the Duga-3 (Russian:
????-3)  system, part of the Soviet ABM early-warning network.
NATO military intelligence had photographed the system and
given it the NATO reporting name Steel Yard.
conveniently abandoned now, as it was within the now 30 km nuclear
“dead zone” after the Chernobyl disaster.
couldn’t even ship the massive antenna array anywhere
it was so contaminated. Whistleblower
little digging around and I found this [testimony of V. Baranov]:
“The Chernobyl power plant was blown up by a foreign
agent! Department of Nuclear Energy, Science Academy with
its research and design institutes were not ready for such
an unexpected disaster. Chernobyl nuclear holocaust was not
an accident. Nuclear reactors have high level of reliability
proved by a number of tests. Water pumps of primary and back
up cooling systems could not have been simultaneously disabled.
The picture of blown up reactor was taken too opportunely
by the U.S. satellite that was “accidentally”
on the proper orbit above the 4th block at that very time.
Logically analyzed facts and developments of “cold war”
in 50th show Chernobyl catastrophe was not an accident. That
was a full scale sabotage of the century, which resulted in
breakdown of the USSR economic basis and “soviet”
socialist system in general. The adversaries of the USSR made
an effective use of the negligence and incompetence of the
government headed by Gorbachev along with the lack of sufficient
control of restricted areas.”
Chief Of Staff Deputy For Special Zone Forces
Chernobyl nuclear power plant area retired colonel
at the unexplainable problems experienced at the Chernobyl plant–strikingly
similar to Fukushima without the tsunami:
disaster began during a systems test on Saturday, 26 April 1986
at reactor number four of the Chernobyl plant, which is near
the city of Prypiat and within a close proximity to the administrative
border with Belarus and Dnieper river. There was a sudden power
output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted,
a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to
a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. (Wiki)
surge during routine check? Emergency shutdown failed and caused
a spike? I mean, c’mon. Makes
is the way of the wicked would-be world rulers, they like to
retaliate and teach the “underlings” severe lessons.
This is why you don’t hear other world leaders speaking
up against the American-based military industrial machine. They
know they play dirty, and wouldn’t hesitate to assassinate
leaders or perpetrate horrific atrocities to accomplish their
believed the Mossad, in addition to implanting interfering software
in the Fukushima and Iran operations, also planted not just
the one nuke that caused the Fukushima tsunami, but they have
several others planted off the coast of Japan with which they’re
blackmailing the entire nation into submission.
Mossad is just one stinky arm of the global elites’ henchmen,
but a very effective one. They just happen to enjoy spectacular
immunity via the protected Zionist hoax that most of the west
has bought into. There’s plenty of other squads of empathy-free
mercenary hit men stationed all over the globe.
also very easy for middle eastern looking Mossad agents to parade
as Muslim extremists as they pull off their murderous attacks
against innocent civilians and false flag operations around
the region, and the world. Coincidence?
Illuminati Cards Redux
general understanding of the Woodpecker varies, but it goes
as far as possibly being a mind-control device, similar to HAARP.
Ukrainian-developed computer game S.T.A.L.K.E.R. has a plot
focused on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the nuclear
accident there. The game heavily features actual locations in
the area, including the Duga-3 array. It is presented as the
“Brain Scorcher”, a wide-area mind control device
which must be deactivated by the player. Source
Russian Woodpecker also appeared on the History Channel on That’s
Impossible as a suspected weather control device used by
the U.S.S.R. (original air date 5/1/2010 10am CDT).
a BBC Horizon documentary, the Mysterious Mr. Tesla, doctor
Andrew Michrowski (the Planetary Association for Clean Energy)
speculated that the Woodpecker could in fact be a Soviet mind
control transmitter, imposing on people’s ability to think
rationally and stay calm. (original air date 20th December 1982)
Not the First Time
1982, US president Ronald Reagan approved a CIA plan to sabotage
the Soviet Union’s economy through covert transfers of
technology that contained hidden malfunctions, including software
that later triggered a huge explosion in a gas pipeline, according
to a former White House official.
Reed, a former Air Force secretary and member of the National
Security Council, describes the episode in a book, At the
Abyss: An Insider’s History of the Cold War, to be
published next month.
writes that the Siberia pipeline explosion was just one example
of “cold-eyed economic warfare” against the Soviet
Union that the CIA carried out under director William Casey
during the final years of the Cold War.
order to disrupt the Soviet gas supply, its hard currency earnings
from the West, and the internal Russian economy, the pipeline
software that was to run the pumps, turbines, and valves was
programmed to go haywire, after a decent interval, to reset
pump speeds and valve settings to produce pressures far beyond
those acceptable to pipeline joints and welds,” Reed writes.
result was the most monumental non-nuclear explosion and fire
ever seen from space.” US satellites picked up the explosion.
there were no physical casualties from the pipeline explosion,
there was significant damage to the Soviet economy.” Source... 2012-04-04 Alex Jones interview with Bob
Fletcher, Second Hour. Download MP3 Here
(6.9 MB, 58:59), at 28:31 at the online video version Here.
[Editor's Note: This interview is very significant for many
reasons. (a) It reinforces what Leuren Moret has said about
the joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. partnership on HAARP at the time of
Chernobyl involving the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
where she worked. If the Soviets had scientists working at Livermore
on this project, it becomes that much more plausible that Livermore
had scientists working at a place like Chernobyl in exchange.
(b) It reinforces the idea that a pro-Zionist plutocracy, which
includes Bill Gates, Ted Turner, and Warren Buffett as gentile
"front men," has been working for its own interests,
sometimes working with the U.S. and Russia, and at other times
stabbing either side in the back when convenient. (c) The sale
by Russians of much of their HAARP technology reinforces the
"disaster capitalist" theme, to the extent that if
Russians were forced into such desperation to make this kind
of sale they were probably forced to sell many other sensitive
technologies at fire sale prices to Zionist kleptocrats as well.
We already know how Zionist kleptocrats gobbled up Russian natural
resources at bargain basement prices. The sale of HAARP technology
to Red China may have also involved a share deal with Zionists
and their fellow travelers like Bill Gates. In Final Judgment
by Michael Collins Piper, we learn how Israel and Red China
were secret partners in atomic bomb development in the 1950's
and 1960's. The SPOTLIGHT reported in the early 1990's how Israelis
had been importing arms to Red China in the hulls of U.S. Navy
ships! (During the Vietnam era, Mossad-CIA-MI6 imported heroin
from the Golden Triangle into the U.S. by stuffing the bodies
of American soldiers killed in action -- these folks just love
to smuggle using U.S. military assets!). It is seems highly
likely that Israel and its Zionist handlers such as the Rothschilds
/ City of London are not only abreast of the latest HAARP technologies,
but probably run organizations that parallel U.S. military HAARP
control capabilities as well as command and control organizations
in other countries that host HAARP facilities. This would enhance
their ability to monitor or hijack HAARP facilities for their
own special operations, or for the special use of plutocrats
like Bill Gates who want to use them for disaster capitalist
and extortion purposes. All of this leads to the last point,
(d) If Bill Gates and other Zionist-friendly plutocrats are
willing to use HAARP for disaster capitalist and extortion purposes,
why would their counterparts back in 1986 have been particularly
reluctant to sabotage Chernobyl if it had suited their purposes?
As a final note, find out more about Bob Fletcher at bobfletcherinvestigations.com]
Alex Jones: [at 48:00 MP3
version, at 28:31 online
video version] ...Bill Gates says that he is going to
have this global weather bureau that controls your weather.
And see if you don't pay him, well then some bad things are
going to happen. Bob Fletcher: It is amazing, now and also
to say that I said something, just briefly, or just a couple
of minutes ago, it is, there is a three-sided deal to this
now. All right, so we have what I call the covert government,
the secret government that is trying to control and mess up
America's future here and putting it all into their pockets,
so to speak. One world government control -- Jones: They are threatened by freedom because
it will stop their monopoly. They are bad guys. Fletcher: Right. And what they have also
done now, however, way back a long time ago the Russians were
involved with us directly at Lawrence Livermore Laboratories.
The Russians were even given an award for their cooperation.
But they were here in Lawrence Livermore Laboratories working
with our scientists on some of the earlier concepts on this
many years ago. So what happened was that the Russians back
in the '90's, around the period of time that I was getting
ahold of all of this, the Russians set up a company called
Elate, E-l-a-t-e, and this was the Russian weather control
modification -- Jones: And they don't hide it, that is why
they cleared things out for the Red Square events. I mean,
they advertise that they control the weather. Fletcher: Right. They actually said back
in the '90's that for a couple of hundred dollars the American
farmer could be guaranteed rain over his area and all that.
Now I don't know if they ever got to be good enough to do
that, but when they started becoming, running out of money,
OK, when they all fell apart and all the rest of that, they
sold this technology that they had, they had actually
developed with us, hand in hand behind, under the table, all
right, they sold a tremendous amount of this to the Red Chinese.
So Red China, now with all of their money, see they are able
to purchase all of these weapons and things that previously
they did not have, because now they have more money than they
know what to do with, because we buy everything through K-mart
and Walmart, but anyhow, so now what we end up with, we have
the Russians with the potential to do it, we have the American
covert operations side doing it, and we have the potential
of the Red Chinese. The Red Chinese weather control modification
organization has 37,000 employees. Read my lips. Thirty seven
thousand. Now of course this is spread out all over. They
do a little bit of everything, but that is how big the Chinese
weather modification operation is. Jones: Amazing. I can't believe this [part
of the show] has gone by so fast. I will be right back...
.. What explosions did you detect or were you aware of? Can
you list a few?
Dimitri Khalezov: Our service detected a lot of different
explosions, really a lot. What else? Duff: Can you name some of those, because
Americans will be utterly unaware of this, especially considering
none of us have the security level that our own government
would tell us. This is the only way we will know is from you. Khalezov: OK, one of the most scandalous
that was detected, perhaps was the nuclear explosion under
the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Because the official version
[was] that the reactor exploded on its own. But our service
actually detected an explosion of a mini-nuke underneath the
4th reactor of the Chernobyl plant, just for example. Dr. Kevin Barrett: Wow. Duff: Kevin, have you ever heard anything
about this at all? Dr. Barrett: I have never heard anything
about this. What did this lead to? Do you know who was blamed
for it or what the outcome was? Khalezov: The problem [was] that discovery
was so much politically incorrect at that moment that it was
actually shelved. I mean that our service detected it, but
the government did not make any use of that detection. They
just press it with the old story. Duff: Do you have any idea what organization
may have been involved with that? Khalezov: [Laughter] Yes, I have personal
opinion, but it is just my personal opinion. Because the problem
is that the explosion was detected at that time, it was in
1986, and they reported it of course to the government, but
the government did not press it according to this information.
They continued the story that the reactor exploded on its
own. Duff: So what is this group or individual
or whatever that you suspect? Who are they? Khalezov: I guess that it was some kind of
the New World Order project, perhaps by the Freemasons who
used the mini-nuke laid under the reactor. And then they pass
it for that the reactor exploded on its own. Because they
just want to kill the nuclear power industry. Duff: Well it certainly was very successful
at doing that...
2012-01-11Email from William B. Fox to Leuren Moret, Subject:
The very real possibility that the Chernobyl catastrophe was
caused by Mossad-CIA-MI6 false flag sabotage [Memorandum
of our phone conversation the prior day]
Dear Ms. Moret:
was a pleasure to speak with you again yesterday evening about
compelling evidence that the Chernobyl melt-down was a result
of deliberate false flag sabotage and constituted a precursor
to the likely Mossad-CIA-MI6 Stuxnet virus sabotage of the Fukushima
reactors that has been the major factor behind the continuing
global radiation catastrophe we face at present (as noted on
my Fukushima Catastrophe open source intelligence summary page
particular, I want to share notes of our conversation with Dr.
James Fetzer, who like myself is heavily involved in false flag-related
research, and also with Dr. Chris Busby, the eminent UK physicist
who has helped establish that the Chernobyl melt-down was the
consequence of an explosion. Lastly, I have an extensive distribution
list of individuals associated with alternative media that I
will openly or blind copy for the record so that they may be
able to assist us in this line of investigation at some point
in the future. This is an open letter for public distribution.
described your conversation with an admiral from India heavily
involved in the intelligence field who had visited reactor sites
throughout the former Soviet Union. He told you that it was
impossible for Chernobyl to be an accident, because a melt-down
could only take place if 12 layers of security were breached.
In an earlier conversation, you said that it was likely that
Livermore and Mossad-CIA were involved in the Chernobyl sabotage.
another indicator, you mentioned that while you served on the
Lawrence National Laboratory staff between 1989 to 1991, you
became aware that one of the Livermore scientists sent to Chernobyl
to investigate the accident had suspiciously falsified his report
as part of a cover-up. In addition, during the 1991 coup d’
etat attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1991_Soviet_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat_attempt)
the way in which Livermore scientists sent to Chernobyl to engage
in research or provide advice regarding the catastrophe were
prevented from leaving the Soviet Union was also suspicious.
sabotage of Chernobyl fits a broader pattern besides the sabotage
of the Fukushima reactors with the Stuxnet virus, such as the
deliberate dumping of radiation by the UK Sellafield nuclear
facility into the Irish Sea that you addressed in your 1 April
2009 article Global Implications of Sellafield: “Irish
Sea Coast Effect" and Beyond, namastepublishing.co.uk,
This has led to the deaths of millions of people.
also fits with the deliberate massive use of DU munitions beginning
in 1990 by the U.S. and its allies and the horrendous impact
in terms of global contamination documented on the web archive
pages I have created for both yourself (at http://tinyurl.com/64m37tq)
and Dr. Busby (at http://tinyurl.com/3k4zsty).
This has not only killed millions of innocent civilians, but
has also poisoned hundreds of thousands of America’s own
also fits in with the cavalier mentality behind the likely use
by Mossad-CIA-MI6 of “Red Mercury” type mini-nukes
in the World Trade Center Towers on 9/11 as explained in your
joint 28 Oct 2011 "Fukushima Radiation and Uranium Weapon
Update" three-way interview (at http://tinyurl.com/3ukrghe)
with Dr. James Fetzer and Dr. Busby. (I also explain how a “Red
Mercury” device made in Dimona, Israel is a prime candidate
for the 2002 Bali bombing and the explosive used in the 7-22
Oslo bombing, as described on my Oslo-Utoya web page at: http://tinyurl.com/7o7uk44).
encourage other individuals to come forward with more evidence
regarding the likelihood that Chernobyl was a consequence of
deliberate sabotage to assist our continuing false flag research.
and Manhattanby Dimitri Khalezov, Veterans
Note: I think that Dimitri Khalezov offers a lot of interesting
leads and ideas, however, I also have problems with certain
parts of his story, such as his assertion that mini-nukes planted
below the World Trade Center towers were the prime factor in
bringing them down on 9/11. I think it is more likely that mini-nukes
were exploded on many different floors from top to bottom in
the building and fired in certain sequences (for example first
in the basement area to eliminate the underground supports for
the central columns, and then from top to bottom as seen in
many videos to pulverize most portions of the building to dust
before they hit street level). Conventional "controlled
demolitions" were probably also used closer to the periphery
of the building and exploded in coordination with mini-nukes
that quickly melted the massive central support structures.
I also question the extent to which Khalezov plays down the
amount of radiation at Chernobyl after the explosion. In addition,
as previously mentioned, Leuren Moret questions the mini-nuke
story, although Dr. Christopher Busby validates the strong likelihood
that there was certainly a very powerful atomic explosion probably
not caused by a man-made bomb. Ms. Moret believes that various
high level interests want to play down how quickly reactors
can go into meltdown through violation of safety procedures,
and how fast corium can melt through containment and generate
an atomic explosion from "supercriticality" as opposed
to a man-made nuclear device. An atomic explosion might be caused
by hitting ground water or due to some other cause such as "condensed"
corium that hits a"neutron reflector" as suggested
by the blog article The
Non-Battle of Fukushima …by
"Steve From Virginia." I recollect reading
one source which claimed that the Soviets used HAARP and other
rain-making methods to prevent fallout from coming down on Moscow,
and that the Soviets also made the grim decision to rain out
radioactive plumes over Belarus that were headed towards Scandinavia
for fear of liability suits and other international repurcussions
from the Scandinavians. If true, this suggests there are high
level interests that may want to play down radiation liability,
for whom the mini-nuke story could be a cover story to suggest
that most of the nuclear material got immediately vaporized
instead of turning into corium which proceeded to generate substantial
amounts of fallout. Because of the conflicting interpretations
betweeen Moret and Khalezov, I believe that one needs to pick
and choose and engage in additional research and verification.
is an example of a blog discussion on Khalezov's work. The following
is an extract of Mr. Khalezov's Veteran's Today article:]
nuclear “catastrophe” (also referred to as a “disaster”)
was planned with actually two reasons in mind, though the second
reason also somehow additionally contributed to the first reason,
in its turn:
It was one of a few other main mortal blows (along with provoking
the Soviet leadership into sending its army to Afghanistan,
Korean Flight 007, a so-called “Perestroika”, skillfully
orchestrated sharp decline in oil prices, an “anti-vodka
campaign”, and some other blows) delivered to the then
weakening Soviet Union, in order to precipitate its complete
collapse. Because “someone” simply hated the Soviet
It was a skillful frame up intended to discredit the civilian
nuclear industry in general in the eyes of the gullible general
public, as well as in the eyes of the gullible politicians.
“Someone” simply hated nuclear power plants and
wanted them to become extinct. Also a sharp decline in the development
of the civilian nuclear industry that followed the Chernobyl
event, additionally contributed to the tremendous economic losses
suffered by the Soviet Union which were caused by the sharp
decline in the world oil prices, and as such it also contributed
to the first reason as explained above.
the Chernobyl “disaster” was apparently designed
to primarily target the former Soviet Union, it delivered near
a mortal blow to France, which before that event spent enormous
efforts on her nuclear research and on development of her peaceful
nuclear industry. As a result of that “disaster”
France lost practically all her former customers from among
“civilized” countries. If any country still craves
today to buy French nuclear reactors – it would be most
probably a so-called “rogue” state, akin to North
Korea or Iran, which only wants to use such a reactor to accumulate
weapon-grade Plutonium for its atomic bomb.
most of so-called “civilized” countries have completely
ended up any long-term developments of their national nuclear
power programs, and have dismantled the most of pre-existing
nuclear power plants..." 2010-07-04Comparing
the 1986 Chernobyl “nuclear disaster” with the 2001
Manhattan thermo-nuclear catastrophe (PDF)
Note: This is another version of the Veteran's Today
article listed above. The PDF provides the following background
on Khalezov: "About author: Mr. Dimitri A. Khalezov, a
former Soviet citizen, a former commissioned officer of the
so-called “military unit 46179”, otherwise known
as “the Special Control Service” of the 12th Chief
Directorate of the Defense Ministry of the USSR. The Special
Control Service, also known as the Soviet atomic (later “nuclear”)
intelligence was a secret military unit responsible for detecting
of nuclear explosions (including underground nuclear tests)
of various adversaries of the former USSR as well as responsible
for controlling of observance of various international treaties
related to nuclear testing and to peaceful nuclear explosions.
After September the 11th Khalezov undertook some extensive 9/11
research and proved that the Twin Towers of World Trade Center
as well as its building 7 were demolished by three underground
thermo-nuclear explosions – which earned the very name
“ground zero” to the demolition site. Moreover,
he testifies that he knew about the in-built so-called “emergency
nuclear demolitions scheme” of the Twin Towers as long
ago as back in the ‘80s – while being a serviceman
in the Soviet Special Control Service..."]
and Mind Control,
Alfred Webre interview with Leuren Moret on COOP Radio. [Editor's
Note: Given the close cooperation between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
on the Woodpecker Project and other high tech programs, the
ability of Mossad-CIA-MI6 to penetrate security at the Chernobyl
reactors and set up the "accident" becomes more understandable].
Alfred Webre: One of the concepts that we
were exploring was that the development of the technology
of mind control actually goes back in one significant program
to the 70's, to a secret arrangement between the United States
and the then Soviet Union. I wondered if you could tell us
about that. Leuren Moret: Yes, following World War II
the ruling elite or the shadow government in the United States
wanted to pursue a program to develop mind control because
they believed that American servicemen who had been prisoners
of war in, for instance, in China and other Asian countries,
had returned as sort of mind-controlled victims or zombies.
So John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles actually set up the
CIA in the late 1940s for the purpose of developing mind control
programs. They did not exactly know what the Asians had done,
but they wanted to have that ability themselves. And in the
1950's several projects were set up. Project
ARTICHOKE and I think Project
Bluebird. These were the precursors of the MKULTRA
Program. And they were brought under the umbrella of MKULTRA
when it was started in, I guess, the mid-1950's. I didn't
know anything about it. I had sort of heard about MKULTRA
but I really didn't know anything about it until a Project
ARTICHOKE victim approached me and asked me to help him write
a book. And I said, "Well, why don't you bring all your
documentation and your diaries and photos and whatever you
have over to my house and I will look at it, and if it checks
out, then of course I will help you. So I began to learn about
MKULTRA. But before that, I am a nuclear weapons lab whistle-blower
at the Livermore Lab and I am a geoscientist, so from about
the year 2000 I began working 18 hours a day on radiation
issues as a result of visiting the Hiroshima and Nagasaki
museums and beginning to understand how horrific nuclear weapons
are. And I had worked as a staff scientist at the Lawrence
Berkeley Lab when it was still conducting nuclear weapons
research, although I was studying volcanoes. And then later
on in 1989 I was hired at the Lawrence Livermore Lab and worked
there two years and just quit in utter disgust over the science
fraud and contractor [dishonesty] and all kinds of corruption.
And little did I know that actually Livermore had a very important
part to play in MKULTRA. That is where the software was developed
for the global mind-control project for which George Herbert
Walker Bush was the chief architect and CEO beginning when
he was in the CIA. He was probably recruited when he was at
Yale in Skull and Bones. He was certainly very early taken
into the CIA, and a very important operative. A very nasty
one too. So the software for mind-control was developed through
MKULTRA. There was a monkey colony at UC Davis when I was
an undergraduate there in the 60's and I always wondered what
it was for. I heard stories from room mates and other people
who worked there and they described this very large colony
of monkeys that was off the campus and very isolated. Nobody
was allowed over there, but people who worked there and took
care of these monkeys told these horrific tales of monkeys
running around with the tops of their heads cut off. These
wires and electrodes coming out of their brains. It was really
just some pathological experiment going on there. Then the
hardware, the antennae for this global mind-control project
came out of actually the Soviet Union. It was discovered in
I think in the 1960's when -- maybe it was in the 1950's --
when at least three of our U.S. ambassadors to the Soviet
Union died from brain tumors, brain cancer. And it was a result
of the Russians, the Soviets microwaving the U.S. embassy
in Moscow, and causing not only brain cancer in three ambassadors,
or other illnesses, but some of the staff in the embassy also
died of neurological diseases and very strange illnesses.
And actually Henry Kissinger, who was in the State Department,
stepped in, covered it up, gave the embassy workers' hazard
pay, and some of them never regained their health. Their health
was destroyed. So on July 4th, 1976, the 200th anniversary
of the establishment of the United States of America as an
independent country, the Woodpecker signal was turned on by
the Soviet Union and nobody knew what it was, but the ham
radio operators around the world picked it up immediately.
It was sort of a knocking sound or a pecking sound on their
transmissions, on their radio transmissions, and they nicknamed
it the Woodpecker
signal because it sounded like woodpeckers sound when
they are pecking on trees. And it interfered with airplane
and ship traffic on the seas, so the Soviets took out certain
band widths or frequencies that were interfering with communications
that were necessary for airplanes and ships. And it remained
in operational mode for quite a long time. And it turns out
that signal was over the horizon radar transmitted from seven
of the largest transmitters in the world located on the eastern
side of the Soviet Union, and on the western side. And one
of them was powered by Chernobyl, the nuclear power plants
at Chernobyl. So these consumed huge enormous amounts of electricity.
They were transmitting beams of radar, over the horizon radar,
which were transmitted all the way to the United States. They
could cross these beams over each other because the transmitters
were a long distance apart in the Soviet Union. They were
conducting experiments with the full cooperation of the U.S.
Government. In fact, they became secret partners in 1978 at
a United Nations meeting which was held, it was a treaty signing
conference where 68 countries signed a treaty agreeing not
to use the environment as a weapon, and not to damage the
environment with environmental weapons or other kinds of weapons.
At that agreement, at that treaty signing agreement the United
States and the Soviet Union became secret partners in the
Woodpecker Project, and also in the co-development of environmental
weapons which we would call exotic weapons today, such as
weather modification or weather warfare, tectonic warfare
that is triggering earthquakes and volcanoes erupting, and
then the mind control is part of that. Webre: So just to ask you, so that for example
with regard to the Woodpecker Project, the U.S. then in effect
outsourced its program to the Soviet Union and allowed it
to attack a specific city. Moret: -- And experiment upon American citizens. Webre: Yes. And then the U.S. went in and
evaluated the results. Moret: Well actually we sent many scientists
and a very, very large magnet that weighed many tons. We also
transferred other technology and equipment and money to the
Soviet Union. So really in a way you could say they were under
contract to us. And we also outsourced testing the MKULTRA
software and experimented on Canadians. Dr. Cameron, at --
what university was he at? Webre: McGill University. Moret: Yes, McGill University. He was actually
conducting MKULTRA experiments on Canadian citizens. And they
were doing horrific things like erasing their memories and
doing just horrible things to their brains and their ability
to function as normal human beings. They really destroyed
them. And this was allowed secretly by the Canadian Government
and the U.S. secretly allowed the Soviets to conduct the hardware
experiments with the Woodpecker Project. The transmission
of this mind-control technology through very, very large transmitters
in the Soviet Union. So it most definitely was a joint project
between the U.S., Canada, the Soviet Union, and of course
--of course-- England was deeply involved as well.
Webre: So these are really just partners
in the permanent war economy. Moret: These are partners in the permanent
war economy and this really involves the Wall Street banking
establishment, Skull and Bones, the secret society at Yale,
where the sons of the Wall Street banking establishment have
been members and rose to very, very high and important positions
in the secret government as well as infiltrating the regular
government of the United States since even before the 1850's.
And it involves this partnership between the Wall Street banking
establishment, the British throne, and the London money power,
which on the face of it is managed by the Rothschilds...
Viewing: What It Is, Who Uses It, and How to Use It
by Tim Rifat (Amazon.com book listing). [Ed. Note: Question:
was Mossad-CIA-MI6 trying to interdict something much more sinister
than just a "woodpecker" signal, or is this simply
"plot within a plot" disinformation promulgated by
Mossad-CIA-MI6? I have not viewed this softcover book,
but I have seen a pdf
version titled Remote Viewing, also listed
at scribd.com. I do not know enough about remote viewing
to adequately judge Rifat's credibility, however, his description
of Cold War competition by the Soviet Union and U.S. in the
realm of "psychotronic warfare" looks like a very
promising "intellectual rabbit hole" for further inquiry.
Interestingly enough, in her interviews, Leuren
Moret has described how the CIA was also very intensely
interested in psychotronic research, particularly in conjunction
with the development of HAARP technology, and the Lawrence Livermore
laboratories where she worked was a major hub of C.I.A. R &
D in this area. In addition, she describes how the U.S. and
U.S.S.R. were in secret partnership rather than competition.
In the video "Russian
Woodpecker", Duga 3, Chernobyl 2..High-definition video!!"
the narrator claims the Russians were building a 5th reactor
at Chernobyl originally due to come on line the November following
the April disaster, but of course had no choice but to abort
it after the melt-down. Was this extra power needed for an enhanced
global "Woodpecker" operation or was it for more innocent
civilian use? Last, but not least, Mossad-CIA-MI6 often likes
to construct a "plot within a plot" to deceive mid
to lower tier members of their intelligence services. For example,
17 "The Bombing Beat Goes On and On: The JFK
Assassination Subplot, the McVeigh Subterfuge, Bali and Amman
Explosions" of my Mission of Conscience series,
I describe Michael Collins Piper's theory from Final
Judgment that mid to lower tier CIA, FBI, and Secret
Service agents were told that there would be a fake and unsuccessful
assassination attempt against John
F. Kennedy in Dallas on November 22, 1963 blamed on pro-Fidel
Castro communists to help justify U.S. military intervention
against Cuba. This induced them to cooperate with all the security
violations that were necessary to set JFK up for assassination.
They were as surprised as anyone else when the scenario went
"live" with the actual killing of the president. They
were never told the higher level reasons for the assassination,
such as Israel's desire to get around JFK's prohibition against
acquiring the atomic bomb (one of many different motives on
many different levels, to be sure). Similarly, the "Woodpecker"
story may been embellished and completely blown out of proportion
to induce Mossad-CIA-MI6 operatives to engage in sabotage, when
in fact the real motives at a higher level (such as
the Rothschilds / City of London) may have been to set Russia
up for a "disaster capitalist" takeover as well as
to set an example for future extortion purposes. There may have
also been some longstanding global depopulation goals that included
the usual subterranean Jewish delight in anti-gentile enslavement
and genocide. All this having been said, let us now return to
extracts from the pdf/scribd version of Remote Viewing
Naumov, a leading Russian parapsychologist, is on record as
stating, ‘A psychotronic generator can influence an individual,
or a whole crowd of people. It can affect a person's psyche
mentally or emotionally. It can effect memory and attention
span. A psychotronic device can cause physical fatigue, disorientation,
and alter a person's behaviour.’ The Soviets built the
world's largest transmitter, code-named Woodpecker by the US,
to beam mind-control waves at the West (see Appendix 3). It
was powered by the Chernobyl nuclear power complex in the Ukraine.
strange signal which disrupted short-wave transmissions around
the world was detected in the early eighties. It was nicknamed
Woodpecker due to its pulse modulation of 10Hz, which when listened
to on radio equipment, sounded like a woodpecker due to loud
modulations in the signal. It emitted a peak estimated power
of 14 million watts per pulse at frequencies of between 3.26
and 17.54MHz, making it the most powerful man-made, non-nuclear,
non-ionizing, i.e. non-radioactive, radiation source on the
planet. Seven awesome transmitters near Kiev, also powered by
the Chernobyl nuclear power complex, beamed Woodpecker’s
emissions in the direction of western Europe, Australia, North
America and the Middle East. These emissions permeated all obstacles
and were conducted into homes via the power lines of each nation's
national grid. They were capable of penetrating underwater and
even into shielded bunkers.
had the Soviets had discovered a method of affecting the neurological
functioning of entire populations? Woodpecker had been designed
to alter the brain functions of Nato populations by using ELF
modulated signals. It was found that these extremely low frequency
waves could penetrate the skull and change brain patterns when
broadcast at test victims - 6.66Hz makes the victim depressed,
11Hz can make a person manic and prone to riotous behaviour
(see Appendices 3). Of particular interest to the KGB scientists
were the brain-wave maps of pathological criminals, hopelessly
depressed mental patients and socio-psychopaths who had no regard
for anyone but themselves. The Soviets hoped to remap the neural
networks in the brains of the entire western population.
exposure to ELF signals changes the brain’s neural wiring
because the barrage of ELF waves stimulates the network used
for the signal the brain is receiving, depression for example,
while the normal-state neural network is unused. Top neuro-scientist
Dr. Gerald Edelman has shown that neurones compete with each
other and that unused neural connections and brain cells die.
If you can keep a person in one brain state, such as depression,
by use of ELF transmitted by pulse-modulated microwaves, then
the brain connections and cells for normal consciousness will
be destroyed and the person will become a chronic depressive.
Under a barrage of ELF signals from the Woodpecker transmitters,
that was powerful enough the sane mental connections in the
brain would gradually die out. Woodpecker’s 10Hz ELF signal
went on until the fall of the Soviet Union.
Robert Becker of the Syracuse VA Hospital, a Los Angeles physicist
and former member of a top-secret US mind-control programme
which looked into the effects of ELF, claimed, ‘It's highly
likely that the Woodpecker signal is causing neurological changes
in thirty per cent of the population...’"